MATLAB Examples

# Constant Multiplier Optimization to Reduce Area

This example shows how to perform a design-level area optimization in HDL Coder by converting constant multipliers into shifts and adds using canonical signed digit (CSD) techniques.

## Introduction

This tutorial shows how the use of canonical signed digit (CSD) representation of multiplier constants (for example, in gain coefficients or filter coefficients) can significantly reduce the area of the hardware implementation.

## Canonical Signed Digit (CSD) Representation

A signed digit (SD) representation is an augmented binary representation with weights 0,1 and -1. where For example, here are a couple of signed digit representations for 93:  Note that the signed digit representation is non-unique. A canonical signed digit (CSD) representation is an SD representation with the minimum number of non-zero elements.

Here are some properties of CSD numbers:

1. No two consecutive bits in a CSD number are non-zero
2. CSD representation is guaranteed to have minimum number of non-zero bits
3. CSD representation of a number is unique

## CSD Multiplier

Let us see how a CSD representation can yield an implementation requiring a minimum number of adders.

Let us look at CSD example:

y = 231 * x
= (11100111) * x                    % 231 in binary form
= (1001'01001') * x                 % 231 in signed digit form
= (256 - 32 + 8 - 1) * x            %
= (x << 8) - (x << 5) + (x << 3) -x % cost of CSD: 3 Adders


## FCSD Multiplier

A combination of factorization and CSD representation of a constant multiplier can lead to further reduction in hardware cost (number of adders).

FCSD can further reduce the number of adders in the above constant multiplier:

y  = 231 * x
y  = (7 * 33) * x
y_tmp = (x << 5) + x
y  = (y_tmp << 3) - y_tmp          % cost of FCSD: 2 Adders


## CSD/FCSD Costs

This table shows the costs (C) of all 8-bit multipliers. ## MATLAB® Design

The MATLAB code used in this example implements a simple FIR filter. The example also shows a MATLAB test bench that exercises the filter.

design_name = 'mlhdlc_csd'; testbench_name = 'mlhdlc_csd_tb'; 
1. Design: mlhdlc_csd
2. Test Bench: mlhdlc_csd_tb

## Create a New Folder and Copy Relevant Files

Execute the following lines of code to copy the necessary example files into a temporary folder.

mlhdlc_demo_dir = fullfile(matlabroot, 'toolbox', 'hdlcoder', 'hdlcoderdemos', 'matlabhdlcoderdemos'); mlhdlc_temp_dir = [tempdir 'mlhdlc_csd']; % create a temporary folder and copy the MATLAB files cd(tempdir); [~, ~, ~] = rmdir(mlhdlc_temp_dir, 's'); mkdir(mlhdlc_temp_dir); cd(mlhdlc_temp_dir); copyfile(fullfile(mlhdlc_demo_dir, [design_name,'.m*']), mlhdlc_temp_dir); copyfile(fullfile(mlhdlc_demo_dir, [testbench_name,'.m*']), mlhdlc_temp_dir); 

## Simulate the Design

Simulate the design with the test bench prior to code generation to make sure there are no runtime errors.

mlhdlc_csd_tb


## Create a Fixed-Point Conversion Config Object

To perform fixed-point conversion, you need a 'fixpt' config object.

Create a 'fixpt' config object and specify your test bench name:

close all; fixptcfg = coder.config('fixpt'); fixptcfg.TestBenchName = 'mlhdlc_csd_tb'; 

## Create an HDL Code Generation Config Object

To generate code, you must create an 'hdl' config object and set your test bench name:

hdlcfg = coder.config('hdl'); hdlcfg.TestBenchName = 'mlhdlc_csd_tb'; 

## Generate Code without Constant Multiplier Optimization

hdlcfg.ConstantMultiplierOptimization = 'None';


Enable the 'Unroll Loops' option to inline multiplier constants.

hdlcfg.LoopOptimization = 'UnrollLoops';
codegen -float2fixed fixptcfg -config hdlcfg mlhdlc_csd


Examine the generated code. Take a look at the resource report for adder and multiplier usage without the CSD optimization. ## Generate Code with CSD Optimization

hdlcfg.ConstantMultiplierOptimization = 'CSD';


Enable the 'Unroll Loops' option to inline multiplier constants.

hdlcfg.LoopOptimization = 'UnrollLoops';
codegen -float2fixed fixptcfg -config hdlcfg mlhdlc_csd


Examine the generated code. Examine the code with comments that outline the CSD encoding for all the constant multipliers.

Look at the resource report and notice that with the CSD optimization, the number of multipliers is reduced to zero and multipliers are replaced by shifts and adders. ## Generate Code with FCSD Optimization

hdlcfg.ConstantMultiplierOptimization = 'FCSD';


Enable the 'Unroll Loops' option to inline multiplier constants.

hdlcfg.LoopOptimization = 'UnrollLoops';
codegen -float2fixed fixptcfg -config hdlcfg mlhdlc_csd


Examine the generated code. Examine the code with comments that outline the FCSD encoding for all the constant multipliers. In this particular example, the generated code is identical in terms of area resources for the multiplier constants. However, take a look at the factorizations of the constants in the generated code.

If you choose the 'Auto' option, HDL Coder will automatically choose between the CSD and FCSD options for the best result.

## Clean up the Generated Files

Run the following commands to clean up the temporary project folder.

mlhdlc_demo_dir = fullfile(matlabroot, 'toolbox', 'hdlcoder', 'hdlcoderdemos', 'matlabhdlcoderdemos');
mlhdlc_temp_dir = [tempdir 'mlhdlc_csd'];
clear mex;
cd (mlhdlc_demo_dir);
rmdir(mlhdlc_temp_dir, 's');