Discrete-time or continuous-time synchronous machine ST2C static excitation system with an automatic voltage regulator

**Library:**Simscape / Electrical / Control / SM Control

The SM ST2C block implements a synchronous-machine-type ST2C static
excitation system model in conformance with IEEE 421.5-2016^{[1]}.

Use this block to model the control and regulation of the field voltage of a synchronous machine.

You can switch between continuous and discrete implementations of the block by using the
**Sample time (-1 for inherited)** parameter. To configure the
integrator for continuous time, set the **Sample time (-1 for
inherited)** property to `0`

. To configure the integrator
for discrete time, set the **Sample time (-1 for inherited)** property
to a positive, nonzero value, or to `-1`

to inherit the sample time
from an upstream block.

The SM ST2C block comprises four major components:

The Current Compensator modifies the measured terminal voltage as a function of the terminal current.

The Voltage Measurement Transducer simulates the dynamics of a terminal voltage transducer using a low-pass filter.

The Excitation Control Elements component compares the voltage transducer output with a terminal voltage reference to produce a voltage error. This voltage error is then passed through a voltage regulator to produce the field voltage.

The Power Source models the power source for the controlled rectifier when it is independent from the terminal voltage.

This diagram shows the overall structure of the ST2C excitation system model:

In the diagram:

*V*and_{T}*I*are the measured terminal voltage and current of the synchronous machine._{T}*V*is the current-compensated terminal voltage._{C1}*V*is the filtered, current-compensated terminal voltage._{C}*V*is the reference terminal voltage._{REF}*V*is the power system stabilizer voltage._{S}*V*is the exciter field voltage._{B}*E*and_{FD}*I*are the field voltage and current, respectively._{FD}

The following sections describe each of the major parts of the block in detail.

The current compensator is modeled as:

$${V}_{C1}={V}_{T}+{I}_{T}\sqrt{{R}_{C}^{2}+{X}_{C}^{2}},$$

where:

*R*is the load compensation resistance._{C}*X*is the load compensation reactance._{C}

The voltage measurement transducer is implemented as a Low-Pass
Filter block with the time constant
*T _{R}*. Refer to the documentation for the
Low-Pass Filter block for the discrete and continuous implementations.

This diagram illustrates the overall structure of the excitation control elements:

In the diagram:

The Summation Point Logic subsystem models the summation point input location for the overexcitation limiter (OEL), underexcitation limiter (UEL), stator current limiter (SCL), and the power switch selector (V_S) voltages. For more information about using limiters with this block, see Field Current Limiters.

The Take-over Logic subsystem models the take-over point input location for the OEL, UEL, and SCL voltages. For more information about using limiters with this block, see Field Current Limiters.

The PI subsystem models a PI controller that functions as a control structure for the automatic voltage regulator and allows the representation of an equipment retrofit with a modern digital controller. The minimum and maximum anti-windup saturation limits for the block are

*V*and_{PImin}*V*, respectively._{PImax}The Low-Pass Filter block models the major dynamics of the voltage regulator. Here,

*K*is the regulator gain and_{A}*T*is the major time constant of the regulator. The minimum and maximum anti-windup saturation limits for the block are_{A}*V*and_{Rmin}*V*, respectively._{Rmax}The Filtered Derivative block models the rate feedback path for stabilization of the excitation system. Here,

*K*and_{F}*T*are the gain and time constant of this system, respectively. Refer to the documentation for the Filtered Derivative block for the exact discrete and continuous implementations._{F}The Integrator block controls the exciter output through controlled saturation. The parameter

*E*represents the limit on the exciter voltage. The time constant_{FDmax}*T*is associated with the inductance of the control windings._{E}

You can use various field current limiters to modify the output of the voltage regulator under unsafe operating conditions:

Use an overexcitation limiter to prevent overheating of the field winding due to excessive field current demand.

Use an underexcitation limiter to boost field excitation when it is too low, which risks desynchronization.

Use a stator current limiter to prevent overheating of the stator windings due to excessive current.

Attach the output of any of these limiters at one of these points:

The summation point as part of the automatic voltage regulator (AVR) feedback loop

The take-over point to override the usual behavior of the AVR

If you are using the stator current limiter at the summation point,
use the single input *V _{SCLsum}*. If you are
using the stator current limiter at the take-over point, use both the overexcitation
input,

Some static systems utilize both current and voltage sources to generate the power source.

This diagram shows a model of the exciter power source utilizing a phasor
combination of the terminal voltage, *V _{T}*,
and terminal current,

[1] *IEEE Recommended
Practice for Excitation System Models for Power System Stability
Studies.* IEEE Std 421.5-2016. Piscataway, NJ: IEEE-SA,
2016.