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DaviesBouldinEvaluation

Davies-Bouldin criterion clustering evaluation object

    Description

    DaviesBouldinEvaluation is an object consisting of sample data (X), clustering data (OptimalY), and Davies-Bouldin criterion values (CriterionValues) used to evaluate the optimal number of clusters (OptimalK). The Davies-Bouldin criterion is based on a ratio of within-cluster and between-cluster distances. The optimal clustering solution has the smallest Davies-Bouldin index value. For more information, see Davies-Bouldin Criterion.

    Creation

    Create a Davies-Bouldin criterion clustering evaluation object by using the evalclusters function and specifying the criterion as "DaviesBouldin".

    You can then use compact to create a compact version of the Davies-Bouldin criterion clustering evaluation object. The function removes the contents of the properties X, OptimalY, and Missing.

    Properties

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    Clustering Evaluation Properties

    This property is read-only.

    Clustering algorithm used to cluster the sample data, returned as 'kmeans', 'linkage', 'gmdistribution', or a function handle. If you specify the clustering solutions as an input argument to evalclusters when you create the clustering evaluation object, then ClusteringFunction is empty.

    ValueDescription
    'kmeans'Cluster the data in X using the kmeans clustering algorithm, with EmptyAction set to "singleton" and Replicates set to 5.
    'linkage'Cluster the data in X using the clusterdata agglomerative clustering algorithm, with Linkage set to "ward".
    'gmdistribution'Cluster the data in X using the gmdistribution Gaussian mixture distribution algorithm, with SharedCov set to true and Replicates set to 5.

    Data Types: double | char | function_handle

    This property is read-only.

    Name of the criterion used for clustering evaluation, returned as 'DaviesBouldin'.

    This property is read-only.

    Criterion values, returned as a numeric vector. Each value corresponds to a proposed number of clusters in InspectedK.

    Data Types: double

    This property is read-only.

    List of the number of proposed clusters for which to compute criterion values, returned as a positive integer vector.

    Data Types: double

    This property is read-only.

    Optimal number of clusters, returned as a positive integer scalar.

    Data Types: double

    This property is read-only.

    Optimal clustering solution corresponding to OptimalK, returned as a positive integer column vector. Each row of OptimalY represents the cluster index of the corresponding observation (or row) in X. If you specify the clustering solutions as an input argument to evalclusters when you create the clustering evaluation object, or if the clustering evaluation object is compact (see compact), then OptimalY is empty.

    Data Types: double

    Sample Data Properties

    This property is read-only.

    Excluded data, returned as a logical column vector. If an element of Missing is true, then the corresponding observation (or row) in the data matrix X is not used in the clustering solutions. If the clustering evaluation object is compact (see compact), then Missing is empty.

    Data Types: double | logical

    This property is read-only.

    Number of observations in the data matrix X, ignoring observations with missing (NaN) values, returned as a positive integer scalar.

    Data Types: double

    This property is read-only.

    Data used for clustering, returned as a numeric matrix. Rows correspond to observations, and columns correspond to variables. If the clustering evaluation object is compact (see compact), then X is empty.

    Data Types: single | double

    Object Functions

    addKEvaluate additional numbers of clusters
    compactCompact clustering evaluation object
    plot Plot clustering evaluation object criterion values

    Examples

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    Evaluate the optimal number of clusters using the Davies-Bouldin clustering evaluation criterion.

    Generate sample data containing random numbers from three multivariate distributions with different parameter values.

    rng("default") % For reproducibility
    n = 200;
    
    mu1 = [2 2];
    sigma1 = [0.9 -0.0255; -0.0255 0.9];
    
    mu2 = [5 5];
    sigma2 = [0.5 0; 0 0.3];
    
    mu3 = [-2 -2];
    sigma3 = [1 0; 0 0.9];
    
    X = [mvnrnd(mu1,sigma1,n); ...
         mvnrnd(mu2,sigma2,n); ...
         mvnrnd(mu3,sigma3,n)];

    Evaluate the optimal number of clusters using the Davies-Bouldin criterion. Cluster the data using kmeans.

    evaluation = evalclusters(X,"kmeans","DaviesBouldin","KList",1:6)
    evaluation = 
      DaviesBouldinEvaluation with properties:
    
        NumObservations: 600
             InspectedK: [1 2 3 4 5 6]
        CriterionValues: [NaN 0.4663 0.4454 0.8316 1.0444 0.9236]
               OptimalK: 3
    
    

    The OptimalK value indicates that, based on the Davies-Bouldin criterion, the optimal number of clusters is three.

    Plot the Davies-Bouldin criterion values for each number of clusters tested.

    plot(evaluation)

    Figure contains an axes object. The axes object contains 2 objects of type line.

    The plot shows that the lowest Davies-Bouldin value occurs at three clusters, suggesting that the optimal number of clusters is three.

    Create a grouped scatter plot to visually examine the suggested clusters.

    clusters = evaluation.OptimalY;
    gscatter(X(:,1),X(:,2),clusters,[],"xod")

    Figure contains an axes object. The axes object contains 3 objects of type line. These objects represent 1, 2, 3.

    The plot shows three distinct clusters within the data: cluster 1 in the lower-left corner, cluster 2 in the upper-right corner, and cluster 3 near the center of the plot.

    More About

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    References

    [1] Davies, D. L., and D. W. Bouldin. “A Cluster Separation Measure.” IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence. Vol. PAMI-1, No. 2, 1979, pp. 224–227.

    Version History

    Introduced in R2013b