My own take on learning MATLAB is to use it. Play with it. Try things out. If you don't know how something works, then read the help. (Doc is more complete than help.)
If you are really just getting started, then the getting started tutorials are a good thing to read.
A good resource is to use help on a directory name. For example, the matrix functions are found in the matfun directory. So try this in the command window:
matrix functions - numerical linear algebra.
bandwidth - Matrix bandwidth.
isbanded - Determine whether a matrix has certain bandwidth.
isdiag - Determine whether a matrix is diagonal.
ishermitian - Determine whether a matrix is Hermitian.
issymmetric - Determine whether a matrix is symmetric.
istril - Determine whether a matrix is lower triangular.
istriu - Determine whether a matrix is upper triangular.
norm - Matrix or vector norm.
vecnorm - Vector norm.
normest - Estimate the matrix 2-norm.
rank - Matrix rank.
Lots more will appear. If a function interests you, and you think it may prove useful. Click on the name. Each function name is a link to the help for that function.
Now do the same thing for other directories.
You can also go into the doc tools like this, using
So as you are getting started, EXPLORE MATLAB. Wander around. Poke your head into things. Try out any demos you may find.
As you get more sophisticated, you can try things like Cody, found on MATLAB Central. This will drive you to solve simple problems. Be careful though, because Cody can teach you some bad habits too to try to super-optimize your code to be as short as possible. Ultra-short code is rarely truly good code, as it can be difficult to read.
Other things you can do are to try to solve problems from external sources. For example Project Euler has some fascinating problems, some of which are truly difficult. With only moderate effort, you should be able to get through at least a hundred or so. (When last I checked, my personal count of problems solved was up over 300 or so, so many problems there are eminently doable.)
Other things you can do are to read Answers. You can learn a lot by reading advice from experts with the language.
If others that you work with also use MATLAB, other students, etc., then talk with them.
In fact, I learned MATLAB by using it, by working with others who used it on the same types of problems I needed to solve.
Remember that different people learn differently. Some will be best off reading a good book on the subject. There are lots of them out there. Personally, I'd just look online and read the reviews for any book that caught my eye. No matter what, you will want to get your hands dirty. Try things out.
Finally, always remember that advice you get from online can be suspect, just as advice you get from your friends at work or school. Not all users are experts.