A key challenge in RF engineering is accounting for impedance difference and reflection effects that occur when components are configured into a network. RF Toolbox™ represents an RF component by its network parameters, which are sufficient to determine its small signal response. RF Toolbox can determine the network parameters and small signal response of any configuration containing RF components. You can use this capability in the design of matching networks.
RF Toolbox enables you to specify RF filters, transmission lines, amplifiers, and mixers, either directly or by their physical properties. Network parameters can be generated from within MATLAB® or read in from external data. You can read and write industry-standard data file formats, such as Touchstone. You can also specify components, such as lumped RLC elements and transmission lines, by their physical properties. RF Toolbox calculates the corresponding network parameters.
Using RF Toolbox, you can define components in the following ways:
RF Toolbox provides functions to transform and manipulate S-parameter data so you can gain insights into it. Measured 2N-port S-parameter data can be de-embedded by removing the effects of test fixtures and access structures. Single-ended measurements can be transformed into differential or other mixed-mode formats. You can also convert and reorder single-ended N-port S-parameters to single-ended M-port S-parameters.
With RF Toolbox you can choose the appropriate format for your task by converting among S, Y, Z, ABCD, h, g, and T network parameter formats. For example, you can choose Y-parameters for calculating network parameters of RLC circuits, T-parameters for the analysis of cascaded elements, and S-parameters for visualizing frequency responses. In addition, you can convert S-parameters to S-parameters with different reference impedances.
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RF Toolbox helps you build networks of RF components. In addition to calculating the small signal frequency response, RF Toolbox calculates input and output reflection coefficients, stability factors, noise figures, and third-order intercept points (IP3) for cascaded components.
With the RF Budget Analyzer app you can build and analyze a cascade of RF components and automatically generate a RF Blockset model and test bench for circuit envelope simulation. The RF Budget Analyzer app lets you rapidly start modeling RF transmitters and receivers for wireless applications and validate simulation results in different operating conditions by comparing them with analytical predictions.
You can use RF Toolbox to fit data defined in the frequency domain (such as S-parameters) with an equivalent Laplace transfer function. For example, you can model single-ended and differential high-speed transmission lines using rational functions. This type of model is useful in signal integrity engineering, where the goal is the reliable connection of high-speed semiconductor devices using, for example, backplanes and printed circuit boards.
Rational function fitting provides the following advantages over traditional techniques, such as inverse fast Fourier transform:
In the typical signal integrity workflow, you use RF Toolbox after you characterize the backplane with N-port network parameters and before you begin the design of the high-speed semiconductor I/O circuitry. Specifically, you: