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This example shows how to compute numerical derivatives of a closed-loop cumulated performance index with respect to weights and use them to improve model predictive controller performance.

`plant = ss(tf({1,1,2;1 -1 -1},{[1 0 0],[1 0 0],[1 1];[1 2 8],[1 3],[1 1 3]}),'min');`

Create an MPC controller with initial design parameters.

Ts = 0.1; % Sampling time p = 20; % Prediction horizon m = 3; % Control horizon mpcobj = mpc(plant,Ts,p,m);

-->The "Weights.ManipulatedVariables" property of "mpc" object is empty. Assuming default 0.00000. -->The "Weights.ManipulatedVariablesRate" property of "mpc" object is empty. Assuming default 0.10000. -->The "Weights.OutputVariables" property of "mpc" object is empty. Assuming default 1.00000.

Set constraints on manipulated variables and their rates of change.

for i = 1:3, mpcobj.MV(i).Min = -2; mpcobj.MV(i).Max = 2; mpcobj.MV(i).RateMin = -4; mpcobj.MV(i).RateMax = 4; end

Set weights on output variables.

mpcobj.Weights.OutputVariables = [1 1];

Set weights on the rates of manipulated variables.

mpcobj.Weights.ManipulatedVariablesRate = [.1 .1 .1];

Weights on manipulated variables remain as the default values [0 0 0].

The default closed-loop performance is expressed through a set of weights that reflect the desired closed-loop behavior. The weights are contained in a structure with the same fields as the Weights property of an MPC object.

PerformanceWeights = mpcobj.weights;

In this example we make output weights more important than weights on MV rates in evaluating closed-loop performance.

PerformanceWeights.OutputVariables = [100 100]; PerformanceWeights.ManipulatedVariablesRate = [1 1 1];

Note that "PerformanceWeights" is only used in the cumulated performance index computation. It is not related to the weights specified inside the MPC object.

In this example, we only inspect the setpoint tracking scenario for the sensitivity analysis.

Tstop = 80; % time steps to simulate r = ones(Tstop,1)*[1 1];% set point signals v = []; % no measured disturbance simopt = mpcsimopt; simopt.PlantInitialState = zeros(8,1);

`[J1, Sens1] = sensitivity(mpcobj, 'ISE', PerformanceWeights, Tstop, r, v, simopt);`

-->Converting model to discrete time. Assuming no disturbance added to measured output channel #1. -->Assuming output disturbance added to measured output channel #2 is integrated white noise. -->The "Model.Noise" property of the "mpc" object is empty. Assuming white noise on each measured output channel.

disp('') disp('--------------')

--------------

`disp('Sensitivity analysis')`

Sensitivity analysis

`disp('--------------')`

--------------

disp('') fprintf('Output weights: dJ/dWy = [%g, %g]\n',Sens1.OutputVariables);

Output weights: dJ/dWy = [-27345.7, 27166]

`fprintf('Input weights: dJ/dWu = [%g, %g, %g]\n',Sens1.ManipulatedVariables);`

Input weights: dJ/dWu = [3.33751, -125.827, -35.1067]

`fprintf('Input-rate weights: dJ/dWdu = [%g, %g, %g]\n',Sens1.ManipulatedVariablesRate);`

Input-rate weights: dJ/dWdu = [-7.30068, 10250.2, -8369.89]

`disp('--------------')`

--------------

`disp('')`

Since we always want to reduce closed-loop cumulated performance index J, in this example the derivatives with respect to output weights show that the weight on y1 should be increased, as the corresponding derivative is negative, while the weight on y2 should be decreased.

mpcobj_new = mpcobj;

Sensitivity less than 0 suggests increasing output weight from 1 to 2.

mpcobj_new.Weights.OutputVariables(1) = 2;

Sensitivity greater than 0 suggests decreasing output weight from 1 to 0.2.

mpcobj_new.Weights.OutputVariables(2) = 0.2;

Note that the sensitivity analysis only tells you which direction to change the parameters, not how much. Trial and error is expected.

[y1, t1] = sim(mpcobj, Tstop, r, v, simopt); [y2, t2] = sim(mpcobj_new, Tstop, r, v, simopt);

-->Converting model to discrete time. Assuming no disturbance added to measured output channel #1. -->Assuming output disturbance added to measured output channel #2 is integrated white noise. -->The "Model.Noise" property of the "mpc" object is empty. Assuming white noise on each measured output channel.

h = figure; subplot(211) plot(t2,r(:,1),t1,y1(:,1),t2,y2(:,1));grid legend('reference','original tuning','new tuning') title('Output #1') subplot(212) plot(t2,r(:,2),t1,y1(:,2),t2,y2(:,2));grid legend('reference','original tuning','new tuning') title('Output #2')

Recompute just the cumulated performance index using the same performance measure.

`J2 = sensitivity(mpcobj_new, 'ISE', PerformanceWeights, Tstop, r, v, simopt);`

-->Converting model to discrete time. Assuming no disturbance added to measured output channel #1. -->Assuming output disturbance added to measured output channel #2 is integrated white noise. -->The "Model.Noise" property of the "mpc" object is empty. Assuming white noise on each measured output channel.

`fprintf('Previous Cumulated Performance Index J1 = %g\n',J1);`

Previous Cumulated Performance Index J1 = 128645

`fprintf('New Cumulated Performance Index J2 = %g\n',J2);`

New Cumulated Performance Index J2 = 116234

Note that the absolute value of the cumulated performance index is not important.

This is an example of how to write a user-defined performance function used by the `sensitivity`

method. In this example, custom function `mpc_performance_function.m`

illustrates how ISE performance index is implemented.

J3 = sensitivity(mpcobj,'mpc_performance_function',Tstop,r,PerformanceWeights); fprintf('User Defined Cumulated Performance Index J3 = %g (same as J1).\n',J3);

User Defined Cumulated Performance Index J3 = 128645 (same as J1).