# zp2ss

Convert zero-pole-gain filter parameters to state-space form

## Syntax

``[A,B,C,D] = zp2ss(z,p,k)``

## Description

example

````[A,B,C,D] = zp2ss(z,p,k)` finds a state-space representation$\begin{array}{l}\stackrel{˙}{x}=Ax+Bu\\ y=Cx+Du\end{array}$such that it is equivalent to a system in factored transfer function form$H\left(s\right)=\frac{Z\left(s\right)}{P\left(s\right)}=k\frac{\left(s-{z}_{1}\right)\left(s-{z}_{2}\right)\cdots \left(s-{z}_{n}\right)}{\left(s-{p}_{1}\right)\left(s-{p}_{2}\right)\cdots \left(s-{p}_{n}\right)}$Column vector `p` specifies the pole locations, and matrix `z` the zero locations with as many columns as there are outputs. The gains for each numerator transfer function are in vector `k`. The `A`, `B`, `C`, and `D` matrices are returned in controller canonical form.```

## Examples

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Generate the state-space representation of a damped mass-spring system that obeys the differential equation

`$\underset{}{\overset{¨}{w}}+0.01\underset{}{\overset{˙}{w}}+w=u\left(t\right).$`

The measurable quantity is the acceleration, $y=\underset{}{\overset{¨}{w}}$, and $u\left(t\right)$ is the driving force. In Laplace space, the system is represented by

`$Y\left(s\right)=\frac{{s}^{2}\phantom{\rule{0.2777777777777778em}{0ex}}U\left(s\right)}{{s}^{2}+0.01s+1}.$`

The system has unit gain, a double zero at $s=0$, and two complex-conjugate poles.

```z = [0 0]; p = roots([1 0.01 1])```
```p = 2×1 complex -0.0050 + 1.0000i -0.0050 - 1.0000i ```
`k = 1;`

Use `zp2ss` to find the state-space matrices.

`[A,B,C,D] = zp2ss(z,p,k)`
```A = 2×2 -0.0100 -1.0000 1.0000 0 ```
```B = 2×1 1 0 ```
```C = 1×2 -0.0100 -1.0000 ```
```D = 1 ```

## Input Arguments

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Zeros of the system, specified as a vector. The zeros must be real or come in complex conjugate pairs.

`Inf` values may be used as place holders in `z` if some columns have fewer zeros than others.

Example: `[1 (1+1j)/2 (1-1j)/2]'`

Data Types: `double`
Complex Number Support: Yes

Poles of the system, specified as a vector. The poles must be real or come in complex conjugate pairs.

Example: `[1 (1+1j)/2 (1-1j)/2]'`

Data Types: `double`
Complex Number Support: Yes

Scalar gain of the system, specified as a scalar.

Data Types: `double`

## Output Arguments

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State matrix, returned as a matrix. If the system is described by n state variables, then `A` is n-by-n.

Data Types: `single` | `double`

Input-to-state matrix, returned as a matrix. If the system is described by n state variables, then `B` is n-by-1.

Data Types: `single` | `double`

State-to-output matrix, returned as a matrix. If the system has q outputs and is described by n state variables, then `C` is q-by-n.

Data Types: `single` | `double`

Feedthrough matrix, returned as a matrix. If the system has q outputs, then `D` is q-by-1.

Data Types: `single` | `double`

## Algorithms

`zp2ss`, for single-input systems, groups complex pairs together into two-by-two blocks down the diagonal of the `A` matrix. This requires the zeros and poles to be real or complex conjugate pairs.

## Version History

Introduced before R2006a