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isanomaly

Find anomalies in data using local outlier factor

    Description

    example

    tf = isanomaly(LOFObj,Tbl) finds anomalies in the table Tbl using the LocalOutlierFactor object LOFObj and returns the logical array tf, whose elements are true when an anomaly is detected in the corresponding row of Tbl. You must use this syntax if you create LOFObj by passing a table to the lof function.

    tf = isanomaly(LOFObj,X) finds anomalies in the matrix X. You must use this syntax if you create LOFObj by passing a matrix to the lof function.

    example

    tf = isanomaly(___,ScoreThreshold=scoreThreshold) specifies the threshold for the anomaly score, in addition to any of the input argument combinations in the previous syntaxes. isanomaly identifies observations with scores above scoreThreshold as anomalies.

    [tf,scores] = isanomaly(___) also returns an anomaly score, which is a local outlier factor value, for each observation in Tbl or X. A score value less than or close to 1 indicates a normal observation, and a value greater than 1 can indicate an anomaly.

    Examples

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    Create a LocalOutlierFactor object for uncontaminated training observations by using the lof function. Then detect novelties (anomalies in new data) by passing the object and the new data to the object function isanomaly.

    Load the 1994 census data stored in census1994.mat. The data set consists of demographic data from the US Census Bureau to predict whether an individual makes over $50,000 per year.

    load census1994

    census1994 contains the training data set adultdata and the test data set adulttest. The predictor data must be either all continuous or all categorical to train a LocalOutlierFactor object. Remove nonnumeric variables from adultdata and adulttest.

    adultdata = adultdata(:,vartype("numeric"));
    adulttest = adulttest(:,vartype("numeric"));

    Train a local outlier factor model for adultdata. Assume that adultdata does not contain outliers.

    [Mdl,tf,s] = lof(adultdata);

    Mdl is a LocalOutlierFactor object. lof also returns the anomaly indicators tf and anomaly scores s for the training data adultdata. If you do not specify the ContaminationFraction name-value argument as a value greater than 0, then lof treats all training observations as normal observations, meaning all the values in tf are logical 0 (false). The function sets the score threshold to the maximum score value. Display the threshold value.

    Mdl.ScoreThreshold
    ans = 28.6719
    

    Find anomalies in adulttest by using the trained local outlier factor model.

    [tf_test,s_test] = isanomaly(Mdl,adulttest);

    The isanomaly function returns the anomaly indicators tf_test and scores s_test for adulttest. By default, isanomaly identifies observations with scores above the threshold (Mdl.ScoreThreshold) as anomalies.

    Create histograms for the anomaly scores s and s_test. Create a vertical line at the threshold of the anomaly scores.

    h1 = histogram(s,NumBins=50,Normalization="probability");
    hold on
    h2 = histogram(s_test,h1.BinEdges,Normalization="probability");
    xline(Mdl.ScoreThreshold,"r-",join(["Threshold" Mdl.ScoreThreshold]))
    h1.Parent.YScale = 'log';
    h2.Parent.YScale = 'log';
    legend("Training Data","Test Data",Location="north")
    hold off

    Figure contains an axes object. The axes object contains 3 objects of type histogram, constantline. These objects represent Training Data, Test Data.

    Display the observation index of the anomalies in the test data.

    find(tf_test)
    ans =
    
      0x1 empty double column vector
    

    The anomaly score distribution of the test data is similar to that of the training data, so isanomaly does not detect any anomalies in the test data with the default threshold value. You can specify a different threshold value by using the ScoreThreshold name-value argument. For an example, see Specify Anomaly Score Threshold.

    Specify the threshold value for anomaly scores by using the ScoreThreshold name-value argument of isanomaly.

    Load the 1994 census data stored in census1994.mat. The data set consists of demographic data from the US Census Bureau to predict whether an individual makes over $50,000 per year.

    load census1994

    census1994 contains the training data set adultdata and the test data set adulttest.

    Remove nonnumeric variables from adultdata and adulttest.

    adultdata = adultdata(:,vartype("numeric"));
    adulttest = adulttest(:,vartype("numeric"));

    Train a local outlier factor model for adultdata.

    [Mdl,tf,scores] = lof(adultdata);

    Plot a histogram of the score values. Create a vertical line at the default score threshold.

    h = histogram(scores,NumBins=50,Normalization="probability");
    h.Parent.YScale = 'log';
    xline(Mdl.ScoreThreshold,"r-",join(["Threshold" Mdl.ScoreThreshold]))

    Figure contains an axes object. The axes object contains 2 objects of type histogram, constantline.

    Find the anomalies in the test data using the trained local outlier factor model. Use a different threshold from the default threshold value obtained when training the local outlier factor model.

    First, determine the score threshold by using the isoutlier function.

    [~,~,U] = isoutlier(scores)
    U = 1.1567
    

    Specify the value of the ScoreThreshold name-value argument as U.

    [tf_test,scores_test] = isanomaly(Mdl,adulttest,ScoreThreshold=U);
    h = histogram(scores_test,NumBins=50,Normalization="probability");
    h.Parent.YScale = 'log';
    xline(U,"r-",join(["Threshold" U]))

    Figure contains an axes object. The axes object contains 2 objects of type histogram, constantline.

    Generate a sample data set that contains outliers. Compute anomaly scores for the points around the sample data by using the isanomaly function, and create a contour plot of the anomaly scores. Then, check the performance of the trained local outlier model by plotting the precision-recall curve.

    Use a Gaussian copula to generate random data points from a bivariate distribution.

    rng("default")
    rho = [1,0.05;0.05,1];
    n = 1000;
    u = copularnd("Gaussian",rho,n);

    Add noise to 5% of randomly selected observations to make the observations outliers.

    noise = randperm(n,0.05*n);
    true_tf = false(n,1);
    true_tf(noise) = true;
    u(true_tf,1) = u(true_tf,1)*5;

    Train a local outlier factor model by using the lof function. Set the fraction of anomalies in the training observations to 0.05. For better performance, you can also modify the local outlier factor algorithm options by specifying name-value arguments, such as SearchMethod, NumNeighbors, and Distance. In this case, specify the number of nearest neighbors to use as 40.

    [LOFObj,tf,scores] = lof(u,ContaminationFraction=0.05,NumNeighbors=40);

    Compute anomaly scores for 2-D grid coordinates around the training observations by using the trained local outlier factor model and the isanomaly function.

    l1 = linspace(min(u(:,1),[],1),max(u(:,1),[],1));
    l2 = linspace(min(u(:,2),[],1),max(u(:,2),[],1));
    [X1,X2] = meshgrid(l1,l2);
    [~,scores_grid] = isanomaly(LOFObj,[X1(:),X2(:)]);
    scores_grid = reshape(scores_grid,size(X1,1),size(X2,2));

    Create a scatter plot of the training observations and a contour plot of the anomaly scores. Flag true outliers and the outliers detected by lof.

    idx = setdiff(1:1000,noise);
    scatter(u(idx,1),u(idx,2),[],[0.5 0.5 0.5],".")
    hold on
    scatter(u(noise,1),u(noise,2),"ro","filled")
    scatter(u(tf,1),u(tf,2),60,"kx",LineWidth=1)
    contour(X1,X2,scores_grid,"ShowText","on")
    legend(["Normal Points" "Outliers" "Detected Outliers"],Location="best")
    colorbar
    hold off

    Figure contains an axes object. The axes object contains 4 objects of type scatter, contour. These objects represent Normal Points, Outliers, Detected Outliers.

    Check the performance of the trained local outlier factor model by plotting the precision-recall curve and computing the area under the curve (AUC) value. Create a rocmetrics object. rocmetrics computes the false positive rates and the true positive rates (or recall) by default. Specify the AdditionalMetrics name-value argument to additionally compute the precision values (or positive predictive values).

    rocObj = rocmetrics(true_tf,scores,true,AdditionalMetrics="PositivePredictiveValue");

    Plot the curve by using the plot function of rocmetrics. Specify the y-axis metric as precision (or positive predictive value) and the x-axis metric as recall (or true positive rate). Display a filled circle at the model operating point corresponding to LOFObj.ScoreThreshold. Compute the area under the precision-recall curve using the trapezoidal method of the trapz function, and display the value in the legend.

    r = plot(rocObj,YAxisMetric="PositivePredictiveValue",XAxisMetric="TruePositiveRate");
    hold on
    idx = find(rocObj.Metrics.Threshold>=LOFObj.ScoreThreshold,1,'last');
    scatter(rocObj.Metrics.TruePositiveRate(idx), ...
        rocObj.Metrics.PositivePredictiveValue(idx), ...
        [],r.Color,"filled")
    xyData = rmmissing([r.XData r.YData]);
    auc = trapz(xyData(:,1),xyData(:,2));
    legend(join([r.DisplayName " (AUC = " string(auc) ")"],""),"true Model Operating Point")
    xlabel("Recall")
    ylabel("Precision")
    title("Precision-Recall Curve")
    hold off

    Figure contains an axes object. The axes object with title Precision-Recall Curve contains 2 objects of type roccurve, scatter. These objects represent true (AUC = 0.74752), true Model Operating Point.

    Input Arguments

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    Trained local outlier factor model, specified as a LocalOutlierFactor object.

    Predictor data, specified as a table. Each row of Tbl corresponds to one observation, and each column corresponds to one predictor variable. Multicolumn variables and cell arrays other than cell arrays of character vectors are not allowed.

    If you train LOFObj using a table, then you must provide predictor data by using Tbl, not X. All predictor variables in Tbl must have the same variable names and data types as those in the training data. However, the column order in Tbl does not need to correspond to the column order of the training data.

    Data Types: table

    Predictor data, specified as a numeric matrix. Each row of X corresponds to one observation, and each column corresponds to one predictor variable.

    If you train LOFObj using a matrix, then you must provide predictor data by using X, not Tbl. The variables that make up the columns of X must have the same order as the training data.

    Data Types: single | double

    Threshold for the anomaly score, specified as a nonnegative scalar. isanomaly identifies observations with scores above the threshold as anomalies.

    The default value is the ScoreThreshold property value of LOFObj.

    Example: ScoreThreshold=0.5

    Data Types: single | double

    Output Arguments

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    Anomaly indicators, returned as a logical column vector. An element of tf is true when the observation in the corresponding row of Tbl or X is an anomaly, and false otherwise. tf has the same length as Tbl or X.

    isanomaly identifies observations with scores above the threshold (the ScoreThreshold value) as anomalies.

    Anomaly scores (local outlier factor values), returned as a numeric column vector whose values are nonnegative. scores has the same length as Tbl or X, and each element of scores contains an anomaly score for the observation in the corresponding row of Tbl or X. A score value less than or close to 1 can indicate a normal observation, and a value greater than 1 can indicate an anomaly.

    More About

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    Local Outlier Factor

    The local outlier factor (LOF) algorithm detects anomalies based on the relative density of an observation with respect to the surrounding neighborhood.

    The algorithm finds the k-nearest neighbors of an observation and computes the local reachability densities for the observation and its neighbors. The local outlier factor is the average density ratio of the observation to its neighbor. That is, the local outlier factor of observation p is

    LOFk(p)=1|Nk(p)|oNk(p)lrdk(o)lrdk(p),

    where

    • lrdk(·) is the local reachability density of an observation.

    • Nk(p) represents the k-nearest neighbors of observation p. You can specify the IncludeTies name-value argument as true to include all the neighbors whose distance values are equal to the kth smallest distance, or specify false to include exactly k neighbors. The default IncludeTies value of lof is false for more efficient performance. Note that the algorithm in [1] uses all the neighbors.

    • |Nk(p)| is the number of observations in Nk(p).

    For normal observations, the local outlier factor values are less than or close to 1, indicating that the local reachability density of an observation is higher than or similar to its neighbors. A local outlier factor value greater than 1 can indicate an anomaly. The ContaminationFraction argument of lof and the ScoreThreshold argument of isanomaly control the threshold for the local outlier factor values.

    The algorithm measures the density based on the reachability distance. The reachability distance of observation p with respect to observation o is defined as

    d˜k(p,o)=max(dk(o),d(p,o)),

    where

    • dk(o) is the kth smallest distance among the distances from observation o to its neighbors.

    • d(p,o) is the distance between observation p and observation o.

    The algorithm uses the reachability distance to reduce the statistical fluctuations of d(p,o) for the observations close to observation o.

    The local reachability density of observation p is the reciprocal of the average reachability distance from observation p to its neighbors.

    lrdk(p)=1/oNk(p)d˜k(p,o)|Nk(p)|.

    The density value can be infinity if the number of duplicates is greater than the number of neighbors (k). Therefore, if the training data contains duplicates, the lof and isanomaly functions use the weighted local outlier factor (WLOF) algorithm. This algorithm computes the weighted local outlier factors using the weighted local reachability density (wlrd).

    WLOFk(p)=1oNk(p)w(o)oNk(p)wlrdk(o)wlrdk(p),

    where

    wlrdk(p)=1/oNk(p)w(o)d˜k(p,o)oNk(p)w(o),

    and w(o) is the number of duplicates for observation o in the training data. After computing the weight values, the algorithm treats each set of duplicates as one observation.

    Algorithms

    • To compute the local outlier factor values (scores) for each observation in Tbl or X, isanomaly finds the k-nearest neighbors among the training observations stored in the X property of a LocalOutlierFactor object.

    • isanomaly considers NaN, '' (empty character vector), "" (empty string), <missing>, and <undefined> values in Tbl and NaN values in X to be missing values.

      • isanomaly does not use observations with missing values.

      • isanomaly assigns the anomaly score of NaN and anomaly indicator of false (logical 0) to observations with missing values.

    References

    [1] Breunig, Markus M., et al. “LOF: Identifying Density-Based Local Outliers.” Proceedings of the 2000 ACM SIGMOD International Conference on Management of Data, 2000, pp. 93–104.

    Version History

    Introduced in R2022b