# What do DiffMinChange and DiffMaxChange actually do?

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Danny on 8 Sep 2013
DiffMinChange and DiffMaxChange are options that can be specified, for example, when running fmincon. According the MathWorks website, they stipulate the "Minimum [Maximum] change in variables for finite-difference gradients (a positive scalar)." However, I am not finding that these variables work in a predictable way.
- Are they measuring the magnitude of the gradient taken, or the change? - Which norm is being used? - How should these stipulations show up when I am running a simulation?
Currently, when I set, for example, DiffMaxChange = .1, I still see fmincon changing the variables of the objective function by more than this value, under any norm I can think of. Why is this happening?
Any and all information will be appreciated!
Thank you, Danny

Matt J on 8 Sep 2013
Edited: Matt J on 8 Sep 2013
When gradients of your objective function and/or constraints are approximated using finite differences, calculations along the lines of the following are done
y=x;
y(i)=x(i)+delta;
gradient(i) = ( f(y)-f(x) )/delta; %Finite difference approximation
DiffMinChange and DiffMaxChange dictate upper and lower bounds on the value used for delta, and nothing more.
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Matt J on 9 Sep 2013
The relationship between the value and the step size taken is not obvious at all.
There isn't meant to be a relationship between them, or at least not a relationship you can exploit. The purpose of DiffMinChange and DiffMaxChange is purely to let the user tune and try to improve the accuracy of the gradient/Hessian approximations.
It goes without saying, I guess, that if you make a really lousy approximation to the derivatives, your step size (and step direction) can be very different from what you would get if you turned GradObj and GradConstr on and supplied an exact gradient/Hessian calculation. But that difference isn't a useful one -- there's never any good reason to deliberately make the finite difference approximation less accurate than it can be.