LMS Filter

Compute output, error, and weights using LMS adaptive algorithm

  • Library:
  • DSP System Toolbox / Filtering / Adaptive Filters

    DSP System Toolbox HDL Support / Filtering

Description

The LMS Filter block can implement an adaptive FIR filter by using five different algorithms. The block estimates the filter weights or coefficients needed to minimize the error, e(n), between the output signal y(n) and the desired signal, d(n). The output is the filtered input signal, which is the estimate of the desired signal. The Error port outputs the result of subtracting the output signal from the desired signal.

Under specific conditions, this block supports SIMD code generation. For details, see Code Generation.

Ports

Input

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Connect the signal that you want to filter, specified as a scalar or column vector.

When the input is fixed-point, it must be signed.

Data Types: single | double | fixed point

Connect the desired signal, specified as a vector or matrix. The desired signal must have the same data type, complexity, and dimensions as the Input signal.

When Input is fixed-point, the desired signal must be a signed fixed-point.

Data Types: single | double | fixed point

Enter the step size μ. For convergence of the normalized LMS equations, 0<µ<2. Input type must match the type of the Input port.

When Input is fixed-point, the step-size must be a signed fixed-point.

Dependencies

This port appears only when you set the Specify step size via parameter to Input port.

Data Types: single | double | fixed point

When the input to this port is greater than zero, the block continuously updates the filter weights. When the input to this port is less than or equal to zero, the filter weights remain at their current values.

Dependencies

This port appears only when you set the Adapt port parameter to on.

Data Types: single | double | int8 | int16 | int32 | Boolean

Signal to reset the value of the filter weights to their initial values, specified as a vector. The block resets the filter weights whenever a reset event is detected at the Reset port. The reset signal rate must be the same rate as the data signal input.

For reset event types, see the Reset parameter.

Dependencies

This port appears only when you set the Reset port parameter to Rising edge, Falling edge, Either edge, or Non-zero sample.

Data Types: single | double | int8 | int16 | int32 | Boolean

Output

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Outputs the filtered input signal, which is the estimate of the desired signal. It is the same size and complexity as the input signal.

The output signal has the same data type as the desired signal.

Data Types: single | double | fixed point

Outputs the result of subtracting the output signal from the desired signal.

The error signal has the same data type as the desired signal.

Data Types: single | double | fixed point

For each iteration, the block outputs the current updated filter weights from this port.

The weights data type must match the type of the Input port for floating-point signals. Obeys the Weights parameter for fixed-point signals.

Dependencies

This port appears only when you set the Output filter weights parameter to On.

Data Types: single | double | fixed point

Parameters

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Main Tab

Choose the algorithm used to calculate the filter weights.

Enter the length of the FIR filter weights vector.

  • Dialog –– Specify step size by using the Step size (mu) parameter.

  • Input port –– Specify step size by using the Step-size port.

Enter the step size μ. For convergence of the normalized LMS equations, 0<µ<2.

Tunable: Yes

Dependencies

This parameter appears only when you set the Specify step size via parameter to Dialog.

Enter the leakage factor, 0 < 1 – μα ≤ 1.

Tunable: Yes

Enter the initial filter weights w(0) as a vector or a scalar. When you enter a scalar, the block uses the scalar value to create a vector of filter weights. This vector length is equal to the filter length and all of its values are equal to the scalar value.

Select this check box to enable the Adapt input port.

When you want to reset the value of filter weights to their initial values, use the Reset port parameter. The reset signal must be the same rate as the data signal input.

Select None to disable the Reset port. To enable the Reset port, select one of the following from the list:

  • Rising edge — Triggers a reset operation when the Reset input does one of the following:

    • Rises from a negative value to a positive value or zero

    • Rises from zero to a positive value, where the rise is not a continuation of a rise from a negative value to zero (see the following figure)

  • Falling edge — Triggers a reset operation when the Reset input does one of the following:

    • Falls from a positive value to a negative value or zero

    • Falls from zero to a negative value, where the fall is not a continuation of a fall from a positive value to zero (see the following figure)

  • Either edge — Triggers a reset operation when the Reset input is a Rising edge or Falling edge

  • Non-zero sample — Triggers a reset operation at each sample time that the Reset input is not zero

Select the Output filter weights parameter to export the filter weights from the Wts port. For each iteration, the block outputs the current updated filter weights from this port.

Data Type Tab

Specify the rounding mode for fixed-point operations as one of the following:

  • Floor

  • Ceiling

  • Convergent

  • Nearest

  • Round

  • Simplest

  • Zero

For more details, see rounding mode.

When you select this parameter, the block saturates the result of its fixed-point operation. When you clear this parameter, the block wraps the result of its fixed-point operation. For details on saturate and wrap, see overflow mode for fixed-point operations.

Choose how you specify the word length and the fraction length of the leakage factor and step size:

  • Same word length as first input –– The word length of the leakage factor and step size match that of the first input to the block. In this mode, the fraction length of the leakage factor and step size is automatically set to the binary-point only scaling that provides you with the best precision possible given the value and word length of the coefficients.

  • Specify word length –– You can enter the word length of the leakage factor and step size, in bits. In this mode, the fraction length of the leakage factor and step size is automatically set to the binary-point only scaling that provides you with the best precision possible given the value and word length of the coefficients.

  • Binary point scaling –– You can enter the word length and the fraction length of the leakage factor and step size, in bits. The leakage factor and the step size must have the same word length, but the fraction lengths can differ.

For the Specify step size via parameter, if you choose Input port, the word length of the leakage factor is the same as the word length of the step size input at the Step-size port. The fraction length of the leakage factor is automatically set to the best precision possible based on the word length of the leakage factor.

Dependencies

This parameter is visible only if you set the Specify step size via parameter to Dialog

Choose how you specify the word length and fraction length of the filter weights of the block:

  • Same as first input –– The word length and fraction length of the filter weights match those of the first input to the block.

  • Binary point scaling –– You can enter the word length and the fraction length of the filter weights, in bits.

Choose how you specify the word length and fraction length of u'u, W'u, μe, Qu, and the quotient, Q. Here, u is the input vector, W is the vector of filter weights, μ is the step size, e is the error, and Q is the quotient, which is defined as Q=μeu'u

  • Same as first input –– The word length and fraction length of these quantities match those of the first input to the block.

  • Binary point scaling –– You can enter the word length and the fraction length of these quantities, in bits. The word length of the quantities must be the same, but the fraction lengths can differ.

Use this parameter to specify how you want to designate the word and fraction lengths of the accumulators for the u'u and W'u operations.

Note

Do not use this parameter to designate the word and fraction lengths of the accumulator for the Qu operation. The accumulator data type for this quantity is automatically set to be the same as the product data type. The minimum, maximum, and overflow information for this accumulator is logged as part of the product information. Autoscaling treats this product and accumulator as one data type.

  • Same as first input –– These characteristics match those of the input to the block.

  • Binary point scaling –– You can enter the word length and the fraction length of the accumulators, in bits. The word length of both the accumulators must be the same, but the fraction lengths can differ.

For illustrations depicting the use of the accumulator data type in this block, see Fixed Point and Multiplication Data Types.

Select this parameter to prevent the fixed-point tools from overriding the data types you specify on the block dialog.

Block Characteristics

Data Types

double | fixed point | integer | single

Direct Feedthrough

no

Multidimensional Signals

no

Variable-Size Signals

yes

Zero-Crossing Detection

no

More About

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References

[1] Hayes, M.H. Statistical Digital Signal Processing and Modeling. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1996.

Extended Capabilities

Introduced before R2006a