bilinear

Bilinear transformation method for analog-to-digital filter conversion

Description

[zd,pd,kd] = bilinear(z,p,k,fs) converts the s-domain transfer function in pole-zero form specified by z, p, k and sample rate fs to a discrete equivalent.

[numd,dend] = bilinear(num,den,fs) converts the s-domain transfer function specified by numerator num and denominator den to a discrete equivalent.

example

[Ad,Bd,Cd,Dd] = bilinear(A,B,C,D,fs) converts the continuous-time state-space system in matrices A, B, C, and D to a discrete-time system.

example

[___] = bilinear(___,fp)uses parameter fp as "match" frequency to specify prewarping.

Examples

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Design the prototype for a 10th-order Chebyshev type I bandpass filter with 3 dB of ripple in the passband. Convert it to state-space form.

[z,p,k] = cheb1ap(10,3);
[A,B,C,D] = zp2ss(z,p,k);

Create an analog filter with sample rate ${\mathit{f}}_{\mathit{s}}=2\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\mathrm{kHz}$, prewarped band edges ${\mathit{u}}_{1}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$and ${\mathit{u}}_{2}$ in rad/s, bandwidth ${\mathit{B}}_{\mathit{w}}={\mathit{u}}_{2}-{\mathit{u}}_{1}$ and center frequency ${\mathit{W}}_{\mathit{o}}=\sqrt{{\mathit{u}}_{1}{\mathit{u}}_{2}}$ for use with lp2bp. Specify the passband edge frequencies as 100 Hz and 500 Hz.

Fs = 2e3;
u1 = 2*Fs*tan(100*(2*pi/Fs)/2);
u2 = 2*Fs*tan(500*(2*pi/Fs)/2);
Bw = u2 - u1;
Wo = sqrt(u1*u2);
[At,Bt,Ct,Dt] = lp2bp(A,B,C,D,Wo,Bw);
[b,a] = ss2tf(At,Bt,Ct,Dt);

Calculate the frequency response of the analog filter using freqs. Plot the magnitude response and the prewarped frequency band edges.

[h,w] = freqs(b,a);
plot(w,mag2db(abs(h)))
hold on
ylim([-165 5])
[U1,U2] = meshgrid([u1 u2],ylim);
plot(U1,U2)
legend('Magnitude response','Lower Passband Edge','Upper Passband Edge')
hold off
ylabel('Magnitude (dB)')
grid Use bilinear to create a digital bandpass filter with sample rate ${\mathit{f}}_{\mathit{s}}$ and lower band edge 100 Hz. Convert the digital filter from state-space form to transfer function form using ss2tf.

Use fvtool to plot the magnitude response of the digital filter.

fvtool(bz,az,'Fs',Fs) Design a 6th-order elliptic analog lowpass filter with 3 dB of ripple in the passband and a stopband 90 dB down. Set cutoff frequency ${\mathit{f}}_{\mathit{c}}=20\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\mathrm{Hz}$ and sample rate ${\mathit{f}}_{\mathit{s}}=200\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\mathrm{Hz}$.

clear
Fc = 20;
Fs = 200;
[z,p,k] = ellip(6,3,90,2*pi*Fc,'s');
[num,den] = zp2tf(z,p,k);

Calculate the magnitude response of the analog elliptic filter. Visualize the analog filter.

[h,w] = freqs(num,den);
plot(w/(2*pi),mag2db(abs(h)))
hold on
xlim([0 50])
[l1,l2] = meshgrid(Fc,[-120 0]);
plot(l1,l2)
grid
legend('Magnitude response','Passband Edge')
xlabel('Frequency (Hz)')
ylabel('Magnitude (dB)') Use bilinear to transform it to a discrete-time IIR filter. Set the match frequency as ${\mathit{f}}_{\mathit{p}}=20\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\mathrm{Hz}$.

[numd,dend] = bilinear(num,den,Fs,20);

Visualize the filter using fvtool.

fvtool(numd,dend,'Fs',Fs) Input Arguments

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Zeros of the s-domain transfer function, specified as a column vector.

Poles of the s-domain transfer function, specified as a column vector.

Gain of the s-domain transfer function, specified as a scalar.

Sample rate, specified as a positive scalar.

Numerator coefficients of the analog transfer function, specified as a row vector.

Denominator coefficients of the analog transfer function, specified as a row vector.

State matrix in the s-domain, specified as a matrix. If the system has p inputs and q outputs and is described by n state variables, then A is n-by-n.

Data Types: single | double

Input-to-state matrix in the s-domain, specified as a matrix. If the system has p inputs and q outputs and is described by n state variables, then B is n-by-p.

Data Types: single | double

State-to-output matrix in the s-domain, specified as a matrix. If the system has p inputs and q outputs and is described by n state variables, then C is q-by-n.

Data Types: single | double

Feedthrough matrix in the s-domain, specified as a matrix. If the system has p inputs and q outputs and is described by n state variables, then D is q-by-p.

Data Types: single | double

Match frequency, specified as a positive scalar.

Output Arguments

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Zeros of the z-domain transfer function, specified as a column vector.

Poles of the z-domain transfer function, specified as a column vector.

Gain of the z-domain transfer function, specified as a scalar.

Numerator coefficients of the digital transfer function, specified as a row vector.

Denominator coefficients of the digital transfer function, specified as a row vector.

State matrix in the z-domain, returned as a matrix. If the system is described by n state variables, then Ad is n-by-n.

Data Types: single | double

Input-to-state matrix in the z-domain, returned as a matrix. If the system is described by n state variables, then Bd is n-by-1.

Data Types: single | double

State-to-output matrix in the z-domain, returned as a matrix. If the system has q outputs and is described by n state variables, then Cd is q-by-n.

Data Types: single | double

Feedthrough matrix in the z-domain, returned as a matrix. If the system has q outputs, then Dd is q-by-1.

Data Types: single | double

Diagnostics

bilinear requires that the numerator order be no greater than the denominator order. If this is not the case, bilinear displays

Numerator cannot be higher order than denominator.

For bilinear to distinguish between the zero-pole-gain and transfer function linear system formats, the first two input parameters must be vectors with the same orientation in these cases. If this is not the case, bilinear displays

First two arguments must have the same orientation.

Algorithms

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The bilinear transformation is a mathematical mapping of variables. In digital filtering, it is a standard method of mapping the s or analog plane into the z or digital plane. It transforms analog filters, designed using classical filter design techniques, into their discrete equivalents.

The bilinear transformation maps the s-plane into the z-plane by

${H\left(z\right)=H\left(s\right)|}_{s=2{f}_{s}\frac{z-1}{z+1}}.$

This transformation maps the jΩ axis (from Ω = –∞ to +∞) repeatedly around the unit circle (ejw, from ω = –π to π) by

$\omega =2{\mathrm{tan}}^{-1}\left(\frac{\Omega }{2{f}_{s}}\right).$

bilinear can accept an optional parameter Fp that specifies prewarping. fp, in hertz, indicates a “match” frequency, that is, a frequency for which the frequency responses before and after mapping match exactly. In prewarped mode, the bilinear transformation maps the s-plane into the z-plane with

${H\left(z\right)=H\left(s\right)|}_{s=\frac{2\pi {f}_{p}}{\mathrm{tan}\left(\pi \frac{{f}_{p}}{{f}_{s}}\right)}\frac{z-1}{z+1}}.$

With the prewarping option, bilinear maps the jΩ axis (from Ω = –∞ to +∞) repeatedly around the unit circle (e, from ω = –π to π) by

$\omega =2{\mathrm{tan}}^{-1}\left(\frac{\Omega \mathrm{tan}\left(\pi \frac{{f}_{p}}{{f}_{s}}\right)}{2\pi {f}_{p}}\right).$

In prewarped mode, bilinear matches the frequency 2πfp (in radians per second) in the s-plane to the normalized frequency 2πfp/fs (in radians per second) in the z-plane.

The bilinear function works with three different linear system representations: zero-pole-gain, transfer function, and state-space form.

bilinear uses one of two algorithms depending on the format of the input linear system you supply. One algorithm works on the zero-pole-gain format and the other on the state-space format. For transfer function representations, bilinear converts to state-space form, performs the transformation, and converts the resulting state-space system back to transfer function form.

Zero-Pole-Gain Algorithm

For a system in zero-pole-gain form, bilinear performs four steps:

1. If fp is present, it prewarps:

fp = 2*pi*fp;
fs = fp/tan(fp/fs/2)

otherwise, fs = 2*fs.

2. It strips any zeros at ±∞ using

z = z(finite(z));

3. It transforms the zeros, poles, and gain using

pd = (1+p/fs)./(1-p/fs);    % Do bilinear transformation
zd = (1+z/fs)./(1-z/fs);
kd = real(k*prod(fs-z)./prod(fs-p));

4. It adds extra zeros at -1 so the resulting system has equivalent numerator and denominator order.

State-Space Algorithm

An analog system in state space form is given by

$\begin{array}{l}\stackrel{˙}{x}=Ax+Bu\\ y=Cx+Du\end{array}$

. This system is converted to the discrete form using state-space equations as follows:

To convert an analog system in state-space form, bilinear performs two steps:

1. If fp is present, let

$\lambda =\frac{\pi {f}_{p}}{\mathrm{tan}\left(\pi {f}_{p}/{f}_{s}\right)}.$

If fp is not present, let λ=fs.

2. Compute Ad, Bd, Cd, and Dd in terms of A, B, C, and D using

$\begin{array}{l}{A}_{d}={\left(}^{I}\left(I+A\frac{1}{2\lambda }\right),\\ {B}_{d}=\frac{1}{\sqrt{\lambda }}{\left(}^{I}B,\\ {C}_{d}=\frac{1}{\sqrt{\lambda }}C{\left(}^{I},\\ {D}_{d}=\frac{1}{2\lambda }C{\left(}^{I}B+D.\end{array}$

Transfer Function

For a system in transfer function form, bilinear converts an s-domain transfer function given by num and den to a discrete equivalent. Row vectors num and den specify the coefficients of the numerator and denominator, respectively, in descending powers of s. Let B(s) be the numerator polynomial and A(s) be the denominator polynomial. The transfer function is:

$\frac{B\left(s\right)}{A\left(s\right)}=\frac{B\left(1\right){s}^{n}+\cdots +B\left(n\right)s+B\left(n+1\right)}{A\left(1\right){s}^{m}+\cdots +A\left(m\right)s+A\left(m+1\right)}$

fs is the sample rate in hertz. bilinear returns the discrete equivalent in row vectors numd and dend in descending powers of z (ascending powers of z–1). fp is the optional match frequency, in hertz, for prewarping.

 Oppenheim, Alan V., Ronald W. Schafer, and John R. Buck. Discrete-Time Signal Processing. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1999.

 Parks, Thomas W., and C. Sidney Burrus. Digital Filter Design. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1987.