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This example shows how to specify the linearization for a model component that does not linearize well using a linear model identified using the System Identification Toolbox™. This example requires Simscape™ Electrical™ software.

Open the simulink model for the hard drive.

```
model = 'scdpwmharddrive';
open_system(model)
```

In this model, the hard drive plant is driven by a current source. The current source is implemented by a circuit that is driven by a Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) signal so that its output can be adjusted by the duty cycle. For details of the hard drive model, see Digital Servo Control of a Hard-Disk Drive.

PWM-driven circuits usually have high frequency switching components, such as the MOSFET transistor in this model, whose average behavior is not well defined. Thus, exact linearization of this type of circuit is problematic. When you linearize the model from the duty cycle input to the position error, the result is zero.

The Simscape solver in this model is configured to run in local solver mode. When linearizing the model, first turn off the local solver.

SimscapeSolver = [model '/PWM driven converter/Solver Configuration']; set_param(SimscapeSolver,'UseLocalSolver','off');

Linearize the model.

io(1) = linio('scdpwmharddrive/Duty cycle',1,'input'); io(2) = linio('scdpwmharddrive/Hard Disk Model',1,'output'); sys = linearize(model,io)

sys = D = Duty cycle position err 0 Static gain.

As expected, the PWM components cause the system to linearize to zero.

Turn the local solver back on for simulation.

set_param(SimscapeSolver,'UseLocalSolver','on')

You can estimate the frequency response of the PWM-driven current source and use the result to identify a linear model for it. The current signal has a discrete sample time of `1e-7`

. Therefore, you need to use a sinestream signal with a fixed sample time as your estimation input signal. Create a signal that has frequencies between 2,000 and 200,000 rad/s.

idinput = frest.createFixedTsSinestream(Ts,{2000,200000}); idinput.Amplitude = 0.1;

Define the input and output points for the PWM-driven circuit, and run the frequency response estimation using the sinestream input signal.

pwm_io(1) = linio('scdpwmharddrive/Duty cycle',1,'input'); pwm_io(2) = linio('scdpwmharddrive/PWM driven converter',1,'openoutput'); sysfrd = frestimate(model,pwm_io,idinput);

To identify a second-order model using the frequency response data, use `tfest`

from the System Identification Toolbox. Then, compare the identified model to the original frequency response data.

```
sysid = ss(tfest(idfrd(sysfrd),2));
bode(sysid,sysfrd,'r*')
```

We used frequency response data with frequencies between 2,000 and 200,000 rad/s. The identified model has a flat magnitude response for frequencies smaller than 2,000. However, our estimation did not include those frequencies. To verify whether the frequency response is flat for lower frequencies, estimate the response using a sinestream input signal with frequencies of 20 and 200 rad/s.

lowfreq = [20 200]; inputlow = frest.createFixedTsSinestream(Ts,lowfreq)

The sinestream input signal: Frequency : [20 200] (rad/s) Amplitude : 1e-05 SamplesPerPeriod : [3141593 314159] NumPeriods : 4 RampPeriods : 0 FreqUnits (rad/s,Hz): rad/s SettlingPeriods : 1 ApplyFilteringInFRESTIMATE (on/off) : on SimulationOrder (Sequential/OneAtATime): Sequential

The combination of the fast sample time of `1e-7`

seconds (10 MHz sampling frequency) and the lower creates high `SamplesPerPeriod`

values. In this case, considering that each frequency has four periods, frequency response estimation would log output data with around 14 million samples.

Since such a high sampling rate is not necessary for analyzing 20 and 200 rad/s frequencies, you can avoid memory issues by increasing the sample time to `1e-4`

.

Tslow = 1e-4; wslow = 2*pi/Tslow; inputlow = frest.createFixedTsSinestream(Tslow,wslow./round(wslow./lowfreq)); inputlow.Amplitude = 0.1;

To make the model compatible with the smaller sampling rate, resample the output data point using a rate transition block as in the modified model:

```
modellow = 'scdpwmharddrive_lowfreq';
open_system(modellow)
```

Run the analysis for the low frequencies by running the following command:

sysfrdlow = frestimate(modellow,getlinio(modellow),inputlow);

The frequency response estimation can take several minutes. For this example, load the estimation results.

```
load scdpwmharddrive_lowfreqresults.mat
```

To validate the low-frequency response of the identified model, compare the estimated result with the identified model.

```
bode(sysid,sysfrdlow,'r*')
```

Close the low-frequency model.

bdclose(modellow)

To specify the linearization of the PWM-driven component using the validated identified model, specify the linearization of the PWM driven converter subsystem.

pwmblock = 'scdpwmharddrive/PWM driven converter'; set_param(pwmblock,'SCDEnableBlockLinearizationSpecification','on'); rep = struct('Specification','sysid',... 'Type','Expression',... 'ParameterNames','',... 'ParameterValues',''); set_param(pwmblock,'SCDBlockLinearizationSpecification',rep); set_param('scdpwmharddrive/Duty cycle','SampleTime','Ts_plant');

Linearize the model.

set_param(SimscapeSolver,'UseLocalSolver','off') sys = linearize(model,io); set_param(SimscapeSolver,'UseLocalSolver','on')

You can validate the overall linearization result using frequency response estimation, using the following commands:

valinput = frest.Sinestream(sys); valinput = fselect(valinput,3e3,1e5); valinput.Amplitude = 0.1; sysval = frestimate(model,io,valinput);

The frequency response estimation can take several minutes. For this example, load the estimation results.

load scdpwmharddrive_valfreqresults.mat bodemag(sys,sysval,'r*')

The linearization result is accurate, and all the resonances exist in the actual dynamics of the model.

Close the model.

```
bdclose('scdpwmharddrive')
```

`frestimate`

| `tfest`

(System Identification Toolbox)