loss
Loss of k-nearest neighbor classifier
Description
returns a scalar representing how well L
= loss(mdl
,Tbl
,ResponseVarName
)mdl
classifies the data
in Tbl
when Tbl.ResponseVarName
contains the
true classifications. If Tbl
contains the response variable
used to train mdl
, then you do not need to specify
ResponseVarName
.
When computing the loss, the loss
function normalizes the
class probabilities in Tbl.ResponseVarName
to the class
probabilities used for training, which are stored in the Prior
property of mdl
.
The meaning of the classification loss (L
) depends on the
loss function and weighting scheme, but, in general, better classifiers yield
smaller classification loss values. For more details, see Classification Loss.
returns a scalar representing how well L
= loss(mdl
,Tbl
,Y
)mdl
classifies the data
in Tbl
when Y
contains the true
classifications.
When computing the loss, the loss
function normalizes the
class probabilities in Y
to the class probabilities used for
training, which are stored in the Prior
property of
mdl
.
returns a scalar representing how well L
= loss(mdl
,X
,Y
)mdl
classifies the data
in X
when Y
contains the true
classifications.
When computing the loss, the loss
function normalizes the
class probabilities in Y
to the class probabilities used for
training, which are stored in the Prior
property of
mdl
.
specifies options using one or more name-value pair arguments in addition to the
input arguments in previous syntaxes. For example, you can specify the loss function
and the classification weights.L
= loss(___,Name,Value
)
Note
If the predictor data in X
or Tbl
contains
any missing values and LossFun
is not set to
"classifcost"
, "classiferror"
, or
"mincost"
, the loss
function can
return NaN. For more details, see loss can return NaN for predictor data with missing values.
Examples
Loss Calculation
Create a k-nearest neighbor classifier for the Fisher iris data, where k = 5.
Load the Fisher iris data set.
load fisheriris
Create a classifier for five nearest neighbors.
mdl = fitcknn(meas,species,'NumNeighbors',5);
Examine the loss of the classifier for a mean observation classified as 'versicolor'
.
X = mean(meas);
Y = {'versicolor'};
L = loss(mdl,X,Y)
L = 0
All five nearest neighbors classify as 'versicolor'
.
Input Arguments
mdl
— k-nearest neighbor classifier model
ClassificationKNN
object
k-nearest neighbor classifier model, specified as a
ClassificationKNN
object.
Tbl
— Sample data
table
Sample data used to train the model, specified as a table. Each row of
Tbl
corresponds to one observation, and each column corresponds
to one predictor variable. Optionally, Tbl
can contain one
additional column for the response variable. Multicolumn variables and cell arrays other
than cell arrays of character vectors are not allowed.
If Tbl
contains the response variable used to train
mdl
, then you do not need to specify
ResponseVarName
or Y
.
If you train mdl
using sample data contained in a table, then the
input data for loss
must also be in a table.
Data Types: table
ResponseVarName
— Response variable name
name of a variable in Tbl
Response variable name, specified as the name of a variable in Tbl
. If
Tbl
contains the response variable used to train
mdl
, then you do not need to specify
ResponseVarName
.
You must specify ResponseVarName
as a character vector or string scalar.
For example, if the response variable is stored as Tbl.response
, then
specify it as 'response'
. Otherwise, the software treats all columns
of Tbl
, including Tbl.response
, as
predictors.
The response variable must be a categorical, character, or string array, logical or numeric vector, or cell array of character vectors. If the response variable is a character array, then each element must correspond to one row of the array.
Data Types: char
| string
X
— Predictor data
numeric matrix
Predictor data, specified as a numeric matrix. Each row of X
represents one observation, and each column represents one variable.
Data Types: single
| double
Y
— Class labels
categorical array | character array | string array | logical vector | numeric vector | cell array of character vectors
Class labels, specified as a categorical, character, or string array, logical or
numeric vector, or cell array of character vectors. Each row of Y
represents the classification of the corresponding row of X
.
Data Types: categorical
| char
| string
| logical
| single
| double
| cell
Name-Value Arguments
Specify optional pairs of arguments as
Name1=Value1,...,NameN=ValueN
, where Name
is
the argument name and Value
is the corresponding value.
Name-value arguments must appear after other arguments, but the order of the
pairs does not matter.
Before R2021a, use commas to separate each name and value, and enclose
Name
in quotes.
Example: loss(mdl,Tbl,'response','LossFun','exponential','Weights','w')
returns the weighted exponential loss of mdl
classifying the data
in Tbl
. Here, Tbl.response
is the response
variable, and Tbl.w
is the weight variable.
LossFun
— Loss function
'mincost'
(default) | 'binodeviance'
| 'classifcost'
| 'classiferror'
| 'exponential'
| 'hinge'
| 'logit'
| 'quadratic'
| function handle
Loss function, specified as the comma-separated pair consisting of
'LossFun'
and a built-in loss function name or a
function handle.
The following table lists the available loss functions.
Value Description 'binodeviance'
Binomial deviance 'classifcost'
Observed misclassification cost 'classiferror'
Misclassified rate in decimal 'exponential'
Exponential loss 'hinge'
Hinge loss 'logit'
Logistic loss 'mincost'
Minimal expected misclassification cost (for classification scores that are posterior probabilities) 'quadratic'
Quadratic loss 'mincost'
is appropriate for classification scores that are posterior probabilities. By default, k-nearest neighbor models return posterior probabilities as classification scores (seepredict
).You can specify a function handle for a custom loss function using
@
(for example,@lossfun
). Let n be the number of observations inX
and K be the number of distinct classes (numel(mdl.ClassNames)
). Your custom loss function must have this form:function lossvalue = lossfun(C,S,W,Cost)
C
is an n-by-K logical matrix with rows indicating the class to which the corresponding observation belongs. The column order corresponds to the class order inmdl.ClassNames
. ConstructC
by settingC(p,q) = 1
, if observationp
is in classq
, for each row. Set all other elements of rowp
to0
.S
is an n-by-K numeric matrix of classification scores. The column order corresponds to the class order inmdl.ClassNames
. The argumentS
is a matrix of classification scores, similar to the output ofpredict
.W
is an n-by-1 numeric vector of observation weights. If you passW
, the software normalizes the weights to sum to1
.Cost
is a K-by-K numeric matrix of misclassification costs. For example,Cost = ones(K) – eye(K)
specifies a cost of0
for correct classification and1
for misclassification.The output argument
lossvalue
is a scalar.
For more details on loss functions, see Classification Loss.
Data Types: char
| string
| function_handle
Weights
— Observation weights
ones(size(X,1),1)
(default) | numeric vector | name of a variable in Tbl
Observation weights, specified as the comma-separated pair consisting
of 'Weights'
and a numeric vector or the name of a
variable in Tbl
.
If you specify Weights
as a numeric vector, then
the size of Weights
must be equal to the number of
rows in X
or Tbl
.
If you specify Weights
as the name of a variable
in Tbl
, the name must be a character vector or
string scalar. For example, if the weights are stored as
Tbl.w
, then specify Weights
as 'w'
. Otherwise, the software treats all columns of
Tbl
, including Tbl.w
, as
predictors.
loss
normalizes the weights so that observation
weights in each class sum to the prior probability of that class. When
you supply Weights
, loss
computes the weighted classification loss.
Example: 'Weights','w'
Data Types: single
| double
| char
| string
Algorithms
Classification Loss
Classification loss functions measure the predictive inaccuracy of classification models. When you compare the same type of loss among many models, a lower loss indicates a better predictive model.
Consider the following scenario.
L is the weighted average classification loss.
n is the sample size.
For binary classification:
y_{j} is the observed class label. The software codes it as –1 or 1, indicating the negative or positive class (or the first or second class in the
ClassNames
property), respectively.f(X_{j}) is the positive-class classification score for observation (row) j of the predictor data X.
m_{j} = y_{j}f(X_{j}) is the classification score for classifying observation j into the class corresponding to y_{j}. Positive values of m_{j} indicate correct classification and do not contribute much to the average loss. Negative values of m_{j} indicate incorrect classification and contribute significantly to the average loss.
For algorithms that support multiclass classification (that is, K ≥ 3):
y_{j}^{*} is a vector of K – 1 zeros, with 1 in the position corresponding to the true, observed class y_{j}. For example, if the true class of the second observation is the third class and K = 4, then y_{2}^{*} = [
0 0 1 0
]′. The order of the classes corresponds to the order in theClassNames
property of the input model.f(X_{j}) is the length K vector of class scores for observation j of the predictor data X. The order of the scores corresponds to the order of the classes in the
ClassNames
property of the input model.m_{j} = y_{j}^{*}′f(X_{j}). Therefore, m_{j} is the scalar classification score that the model predicts for the true, observed class.
The weight for observation j is w_{j}. The software normalizes the observation weights so that they sum to the corresponding prior class probability stored in the
Prior
property. Therefore,$$\sum _{j=1}^{n}{w}_{j}}=1.$$
Given this scenario, the following table describes the supported loss functions that you can specify by using the LossFun
name-value argument.
Loss Function | Value of LossFun | Equation |
---|---|---|
Binomial deviance | 'binodeviance' | $$L={\displaystyle \sum _{j=1}^{n}{w}_{j}\mathrm{log}\left\{1+\mathrm{exp}\left[-2{m}_{j}\right]\right\}}.$$ |
Observed misclassification cost | 'classifcost' | $$L={\displaystyle \sum _{j=1}^{n}{w}_{j}}{c}_{{y}_{j}{\widehat{y}}_{j}},$$ where $${\widehat{y}}_{j}$$ is the class label corresponding to the class with the maximal score, and $${c}_{{y}_{j}{\widehat{y}}_{j}}$$ is the user-specified cost of classifying an observation into class $${\widehat{y}}_{j}$$ when its true class is y_{j}. |
Misclassified rate in decimal | 'classiferror' | $$L={\displaystyle \sum _{j=1}^{n}{w}_{j}}I\left\{{\widehat{y}}_{j}\ne {y}_{j}\right\},$$ where I{·} is the indicator function. |
Cross-entropy loss | 'crossentropy' |
The weighted cross-entropy loss is $$L=-{\displaystyle \sum _{j=1}^{n}\frac{{\tilde{w}}_{j}\mathrm{log}({m}_{j})}{Kn}},$$ where the weights $${\tilde{w}}_{j}$$ are normalized to sum to n instead of 1. |
Exponential loss | 'exponential' | $$L={\displaystyle \sum _{j=1}^{n}{w}_{j}\mathrm{exp}\left(-{m}_{j}\right)}.$$ |
Hinge loss | 'hinge' | $$L={\displaystyle \sum}_{j=1}^{n}{w}_{j}\mathrm{max}\left\{0,1-{m}_{j}\right\}.$$ |
Logit loss | 'logit' | $$L={\displaystyle \sum _{j=1}^{n}{w}_{j}\mathrm{log}\left(1+\mathrm{exp}\left(-{m}_{j}\right)\right)}.$$ |
Minimal expected misclassification cost | 'mincost' |
The software computes the weighted minimal expected classification cost using this procedure for observations j = 1,...,n.
The weighted average of the minimal expected misclassification cost loss is $$L={\displaystyle \sum _{j=1}^{n}{w}_{j}{c}_{j}}.$$ |
Quadratic loss | 'quadratic' | $$L={\displaystyle \sum _{j=1}^{n}{w}_{j}{\left(1-{m}_{j}\right)}^{2}}.$$ |
If you use the default cost matrix (whose element value is 0 for correct classification
and 1 for incorrect classification), then the loss values for
'classifcost'
, 'classiferror'
, and
'mincost'
are identical. For a model with a nondefault cost matrix,
the 'classifcost'
loss is equivalent to the 'mincost'
loss most of the time. These losses can be different if prediction into the class with
maximal posterior probability is different from prediction into the class with minimal
expected cost. Note that 'mincost'
is appropriate only if classification
scores are posterior probabilities.
This figure compares the loss functions (except 'classifcost'
,
'crossentropy'
, and 'mincost'
) over the score
m for one observation. Some functions are normalized to pass through
the point (0,1).
True Misclassification Cost
Two costs are associated with KNN classification: the true misclassification cost per class and the expected misclassification cost per observation.
You can set the true misclassification cost per class by using the 'Cost'
name-value pair argument when you run fitcknn
. The value Cost(i,j)
is the cost of classifying
an observation into class j
if its true class is i
. By
default, Cost(i,j) = 1
if i ~= j
, and
Cost(i,j) = 0
if i = j
. In other words, the cost
is 0
for correct classification and 1
for incorrect
classification.
Expected Cost
Two costs are associated with KNN classification: the true misclassification cost per class
and the expected misclassification cost per observation. The third output of predict
is the expected misclassification cost per
observation.
Suppose you have Nobs
observations that you want to classify with a trained
classifier mdl
, and you have K
classes. You place the
observations into a matrix Xnew
with one observation per row. The
command
[label,score,cost] = predict(mdl,Xnew)
returns a matrix cost
of size
Nobs
-by-K
, among other outputs. Each row of the
cost
matrix contains the expected (average) cost of classifying the
observation into each of the K
classes. cost(n,j)
is
$$\sum _{i=1}^{K}\widehat{P}\left(i|Xnew(n)\right)C\left(j|i\right)},$$
where
K is the number of classes.
$$\widehat{P}\left(i|X(n)\right)$$ is the posterior probability of class i for observation Xnew(n).
$$C\left(j|i\right)$$ is the true misclassification cost of classifying an observation as j when its true class is i.
Extended Capabilities
Tall Arrays
Calculate with arrays that have more rows than fit in memory.
This function fully supports tall arrays. For more information, see Tall Arrays.
GPU Arrays
Accelerate code by running on a graphics processing unit (GPU) using Parallel Computing Toolbox™.
Usage notes and limitations:
loss
does not support GPU arrays forClassificationKNN
models with the following specifications:The
'NSMethod'
property is specified as'kdtree'
.The
'Distance'
property is specified as a function handle.The
'IncludeTies'
property is specified astrue
.
For more information, see Run MATLAB Functions on a GPU (Parallel Computing Toolbox).
Version History
Introduced in R2012aR2022a: loss
can return NaN for predictor data with missing values
Behavior changed in R2022a
The loss
function no longer omits an observation with a
NaN score when computing the weighted average classification loss. Therefore,
loss
can now return NaN when the predictor data
X
or the predictor variables in Tbl
contain any missing values, and the name-value argument LossFun
is
not specified as "classifcost"
, "classiferror"
, or
"mincost"
. In most cases, if the test set observations do not
contain missing predictors, the loss
function does not
return NaN.
This change improves the automatic selection of a classification model when you use
fitcauto
.
Before this change, the software might select a model (expected to best classify new
data) with few non-NaN predictors.
If loss
in your code returns NaN, you can update your code
to avoid this result by doing one of the following:
Remove or replace the missing values by using
rmmissing
orfillmissing
, respectively.Specify the name-value argument
LossFun
as"classifcost"
,"classiferror"
, or"mincost"
.
The following table shows the classification models for which the
loss
object function might return NaN. For more details,
see the Compatibility Considerations for each loss
function.
Model Type | Full or Compact Model Object | loss Object
Function |
---|---|---|
Discriminant analysis classification model | ClassificationDiscriminant , CompactClassificationDiscriminant | loss |
Ensemble of learners for classification | ClassificationEnsemble , CompactClassificationEnsemble | loss |
Gaussian kernel classification model | ClassificationKernel | loss |
k-nearest neighbor classification model | ClassificationKNN | loss |
Linear classification model | ClassificationLinear | loss |
Neural network classification model | ClassificationNeuralNetwork , CompactClassificationNeuralNetwork | loss |
Support vector machine (SVM) classification model | loss |
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