# how to fix ''Out of memory. The likely cause is an infinite recursion within the program. Error in rcca (line 12) rcca(nx,ny,A,k); ''

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I am trying to using the Contour Tracing estimation algorithm but I have no idea about this error. the input file is D which is uploded in the attachments.

function [detected_img] = Contour_Tracing_estimation_algorithm(D)

A=~D;

% k indicates number of components in binary image

k = 0;

global B;

B = zeros(size(A,1),size(A,2));

% to make sure boundary conditions, skip first row, column and last row,

% column. These will be taken care by recursive function calls later

for i = 2 : size(A,1) - 1

for j = 2 : size(A,2) - 1

if A(i,j) == 1 && B(i,j) == 0

k = k + 1;

rcca(i,j,A,k);

end

end

end

for i = 1 : size(A,1)

if A(i,1) == 1 && B(i,1) == 0

k = k + 1;

B(i,1) = k;

else

if A(i,size(A,2)) == 1 && B(i,size(A,2)) == 0

k = k + 1;

B(i,size(A,2)) = k;

end

end

end

for j = 1 : size(A,2)

if A(1,j) == 1 && B(1,j) == 0

k = k + 1;

B(1,j) = k;

else

if A(size(A,1),j) == 1 && B(size(A,1),j) == 0

k = k + 1;

B(size(A,1),j) = k;

end

end

end

Nof_SignalArea = k;

fprintf('\ntotal number of components in image = %.0f\n',k);

detected_img = ones(size(D,1), size(D,2));

for K= 1:Nof_SignalArea

[r, c] = find(B==K);

rc{K,:}= [r, c];

detected_img(r, c) = 0;

end

end

this is a rcca(i,j,A,k) function

function rcca(x,y,A,k)

global B;

B(x,y) = k;

% dx and dy is used to check for 8 - neighbourhood connectivity

dx = [-1,0,1,1,1,0,-1,-1];

dy = [1,1,1,0,-1,-1,-1,0];

if x > 1 && y > 1 && x < size(A,1) && y < size(A,2)

for i = 1 : 8

nx = x + dx(i);

ny = y + dy(i);

if A(nx,ny) == 1 && B(nx,ny) == 0

rcca(nx,ny,A,k);

end

end

end

##### 1 Comment

Walter Roberson
on 26 Mar 2020

### Answers (2)

Aghamarsh Varanasi
on 24 Mar 2020

Hi,

You are trying to implement the contour algorithm on the matrix. As the algorithm that you provided ( rcca ) is recursive, the number of function calls may increase significantly.

function rcca(x,y,A,k)

...

rcca(nx,ny,A,k);

...

end

Recursive algorithms use the recursion stack space to maintain the function call records. When the number of recursive function calls increase, the recursion stack is used up and you will end up exhausting it. This is the actual reason for the error that you get.

This error indicates that there might be any design error, so try decreasing the recursion levels and optimizing the code by dividing the task in slices and apply the recursive algorithm to these slices.

##### 3 Comments

Walter Roberson
on 26 Mar 2020

Hmmm, I would call 99 Bottles of Beer an iterative process rather than a recursive process.

Recursive process for obtaining the current last bottle of beer on the wall:

1) take down all of the bottles of beer on the wall into your hands and start the "last bottle" process with

everything in your hand

2) Last bottle process applied to bottles of beer in hand:

2a) if you only have one bottle of beer in hand, it is the last bottle

and return it to whoever you got it from

2b) otherwise, remove the first bottle of beer and put it back on the wall

at the end, and hand the rest to the next person to apply the last bottle

process to

2c) when that person eventually hands you back a bottle, return it to whoever

you received the collection of bottles from

Each step is working with a smaller and smaller problem (passing fewer and fewer bottles around), and eventually the last bottle is obtained and is passed back through the chain of people until there are no more steps in the chain and that bottle is the solution to "fetch the last bottle".

Walter Roberson
on 24 Mar 2020

Recursive functions should never assign into global variables (except perhaps counting the calls) and should always return the results (except in cases where the calls are being made for their side effects such as plotting or writing to file).

Recursion always needs a termination condition.

In most cases, recursive calls should do some work and then call the function on a problem that is in some way "smaller" and incorporate the results returned. With it being a smaller problem in the call, by induction you would get down to a problem trivially solved (the termination condition). It is, however, also valid to formulate the code in terms of testing the termination first, then calling recursively on the smaller problem, then doing the work. Consider the difference between

function f = factorial(n)

if n<=1; f = 1; else f = factorial(n-1)*n; end

And

function f = factorial(n)

if n<=1; f = 1; else f=n*factorial(n-1); end

clearly both are equivalent mathematically, but they potentially have different low level implementations.

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