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I have a time series signal which is needed in the frequency domain

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Asrith Pyla
Asrith Pyla on 30 Apr 2021
Answered: Mathieu NOE on 30 Apr 2021
The fft code transforms the time series amplitudes into the frequency domain. How do I find the corresponding frequencies? I am attaching my time series signal (times and amplitudes). Can you help me out by transforming it into the frequency domain? I want the frequency domain output between [1KHz and 350Khz frequencies].

Answers (1)

Mathieu NOE
Mathieu NOE on 30 Apr 2021
hello
maybe this can be starting point
further refinement would be to have the frequency axis of the spectrogram in log scale
clc
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
% load signal
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%% data
data = readmatrix('inputsig_non-uniform.txt');
time = data(:,1);
signal = data(:,2);
% time is non uniform => must be first put in linear ascending uniform
time2 = linspace(min(time),max(time),length(time));
signal2 = interp1(time,signal,time2);
time = time2(:); % column oriented
signal = signal2(:); % column oriented
samples = length(signal);
Fs = (samples-1)/(time(samples)-time(1)); % sampling frequency (Hz)
%% decimate (if needed)
% NB : decim = 1 will do nothing (output = input)
decim = 1;
if decim>1
signal = decimate(signal,decim);
Fs = Fs/decim;
end
samples = length(signal);
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
% FFT parameters
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
NFFT = 1024; %
OVERLAP = 0.95;
% spectrogram dB scale
spectrogram_dB_scale = 80; % dB range scale (means , the lowest displayed level is XX dB below the max level)
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
% options
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
% if you are dealing with acoustics, you may wish to have A weighted
% spectrums
% option_w = 0 : linear spectrum (no weighting dB (L) )
% option_w = 1 : A weighted spectrum (dB (A) )
option_w = 0;
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
% display 1 : averaged FFT spectrum
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
[freq, sensor_spectrum] = myfft_peak(signal,Fs,NFFT,OVERLAP);
% convert to dB scale (ref = 1)
sensor_spectrum_dB = 20*log10(sensor_spectrum);
% apply A weigthing if needed
if option_w == 1
pondA_dB = pondA_function(freq);
sensor_spectrum_dB = sensor_spectrum_dB+pondA_dB;
my_ylabel = ('Amplitude (dB (A))');
else
my_ylabel = ('Amplitude (dB (L))');
end
figure(1),plot(freq,sensor_spectrum_dB,'b');grid
title(['Averaged FFT Spectrum / Fs = ' num2str(0.1*round(10*Fs)) ' Hz / Delta f = ' num2str(0.1*round(10*(freq(2)-freq(1)))) ' Hz ']);
xlabel('Frequency (Hz)');ylabel(my_ylabel);
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
% display 2 : time / frequency analysis : spectrogram demo
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
[sg,fsg,tsg] = specgram(signal,NFFT,Fs,hanning(NFFT),floor(NFFT*OVERLAP));
% FFT normalisation and conversion amplitude from linear to dB (peak)
sg_dBpeak = 20*log10(abs(sg))+20*log10(2/length(fsg)); % NB : X=fft(x.*hanning(N))*4/N; % hanning only
% apply A weigthing if needed
if option_w == 1
pondA_dB = pondA_function(fsg);
sg_dBpeak = sg_dBpeak+(pondA_dB*ones(1,size(sg_dBpeak,2)));
my_title = ('Spectrogram (dB (A))');
else
my_title = ('Spectrogram (dB (L))');
end
% saturation of the dB range :
% saturation_dB = 60; % dB range scale (means , the lowest displayed level is XX dB below the max level)
min_disp_dB = round(max(max(sg_dBpeak))) - spectrogram_dB_scale;
sg_dBpeak(sg_dBpeak<min_disp_dB) = min_disp_dB;
% plots spectrogram
figure(2);
imagesc(tsg,fsg,sg_dBpeak);colormap('jet');
axis('xy');colorbar('vert');grid
title([my_title ' / Fs = ' num2str(0.1*round(10*Fs)) ' Hz / Delta f = ' num2str(0.1*round(10*(fsg(2)-fsg(1)))) ' Hz ']);
xlabel('Time (s)');ylabel('Frequency (Hz)');
function pondA_dB = pondA_function(f)
% dB (A) weighting curve
n = ((12200^2*f.^4)./((f.^2+20.6^2).*(f.^2+12200^2).*sqrt(f.^2+107.7^2).*sqrt(f.^2+737.9^2)));
r = ((12200^2*1000.^4)./((1000.^2+20.6^2).*(1000.^2+12200^2).*sqrt(1000.^2+107.7^2).*sqrt(1000.^2+737.9^2))) * ones(size(f));
pondA = n./r;
pondA_dB = 20*log10(pondA(:));
end
function [freq_vector,fft_spectrum] = myfft_peak(signal, Fs, nfft, Overlap)
% FFT peak spectrum of signal (example sinus amplitude 1 = 0 dB after fft).
% Linear averaging
% signal - input signal,
% Fs - Sampling frequency (Hz).
% nfft - FFT window size
% Overlap - buffer percentage of overlap % (between 0 and 0.95)
[samples,channels] = size(signal);
% fill signal with zeros if its length is lower than nfft
if samples<nfft
s_tmp = zeros(nfft,channels);
s_tmp((1:samples),:) = signal;
signal = s_tmp;
samples = nfft;
end
% window : hanning
window = hanning(nfft);
window = window(:);
% compute fft with overlap
offset = fix((1-Overlap)*nfft);
spectnum = 1+ fix((samples-nfft)/offset); % Number of windows
% % for info is equivalent to :
% noverlap = Overlap*nfft;
% spectnum = fix((samples-noverlap)/(nfft-noverlap)); % Number of windows
% main loop
fft_spectrum = 0;
for i=1:spectnum
start = (i-1)*offset;
sw = signal((1+start):(start+nfft),:).*(window*ones(1,channels));
fft_spectrum = fft_spectrum + (abs(fft(sw))*4/nfft); % X=fft(x.*hanning(N))*4/N; % hanning only
end
fft_spectrum = fft_spectrum/spectnum; % to do linear averaging scaling
% one sidded fft spectrum % Select first half
if rem(nfft,2) % nfft odd
select = (1:(nfft+1)/2)';
else
select = (1:nfft/2+1)';
end
fft_spectrum = fft_spectrum(select,:);
freq_vector = (select - 1)*Fs/nfft;
end

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