I am sure there are other more subtle ways to go about it but this seems about as fast as I can make it for a general brute-force solution (0.11s)
This one seems to work for the large test case, too, although it is not a general solution [for size(p,1)>100 it only tests corner points].
Count from 0 to N^M in base N.
Determine if a Given Number is a Triangle Number
Project Euler: Problem 6, Natural numbers, squares and sums.
middleAsColumn: Return all but first and last element as a column vector
subtract central cross
PONG 002: Rectangle, Interactive Download, Easier Play
String Find with Wildcards of a Cell array
GJam March 2016 IOW: Polynesiaglot Large
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