I had a similar problem but the answer for me was completely different than what others found:
To meet STIGS requrierments (security hardening), the /tmp partition is mounted with the noexec option. MATLAB copies a bunch of files to a temp folder within /tmp and then runs them. When the program from the /tmp folder was run, the noexec clause took effect and the execution of the program failed.
The solution is to either remove the noexec option in /etc/fstab or comment out the /tmp entry in that file. If you do the second option, you also have to disable the tmp.mount setting (systemctl disable tmp.mount). I did the latter and rebooted the machine. When it came up, I mounted the .iso and started the install program and it worked!
EDIT: This was for a Centos 7 machine