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lstmProjectedLayer

Long short-term memory (LSTM) projected layer

    Description

    An LSTM projected layer learns long-term dependencies between time steps in time series and sequence data using projected learnable weights.

    To compress a deep learning network, you can use projected layers. A projected layer is a type of deep learning layer that enables compression by reducing the number of stored learnable parameters. The layer introduces learnable projector matrices Q, replaces multiplications of the form Wx, where W is a learnable matrix, with the multiplication WQQx, and stores Q and W=WQ instead of storing W. Projecting x into a lower-dimensional space using Q typically requires less memory to store the learnable parameters and can have similarly strong prediction accuracy.

    Reducing the number of learnable parameters by projecting an LSTM layer rather than reducing the number of hidden units of the LSTM layer maintains the output size of the layer and, in turn, the sizes of the downstream layers, which can result in better prediction accuracy.

    Creation

    Description

    example

    layer = lstmProjectedLayer(numHiddenUnits,outputProjectorSize,inputProjectorSize) creates an LSTM projected layer and sets the NumHiddenUnits, OutputProjectorSize, and InputProjectorSize properties.

    example

    layer = lstmProjectedLayer(___,Name=Value) sets the OutputMode, HasStateInputs, HasStateOutputs, Activations, State, Parameters and Initialization, Learning Rate and Regularization, and Name properties using one or more name-value arguments.

    Properties

    expand all

    Projected LSTM

    This property is read-only.

    Number of hidden units (also known as the hidden size), specified as a positive integer.

    The number of hidden units corresponds to the amount of information that the layer remembers between time steps (the hidden state). The hidden state can contain information from all the previous time steps, regardless of the sequence length. If the number of hidden units is too large, then the layer might overfit to the training data.

    The hidden state does not limit the number of time steps that the layer processes in an iteration. To split your sequences into smaller sequences for when you use the trainNetwork function, use the SequenceLength training option.

    The layer outputs data with NumHiddenUnits channels.

    Data Types: single | double | int8 | int16 | int32 | int64 | uint8 | uint16 | uint32 | uint64

    This property is read-only.

    Output projector size, specified as a positive integer.

    The LSTM layer operation uses four matrix multiplications of the form Rht1, where R denotes the recurrent weights and ht denotes the hidden state (or, equivalently, the layer output) at time step t.

    The LSTM projected layer operation instead uses multiplications of the from RQoQoht1, where Qo is a NumHiddenUnits-by-OutputProjectorSize matrix known as the output projector. The layer uses the same projector Qo for each of the four multiplications.

    To perform the four multiplications of the form Rht1, an LSTM layer stores four recurrent weights R, which necessitates storing 4*NumHiddenUnits^2 learnable parameters. By instead storing the 4*NumHiddenUnits-by-OutputProjectorSize matrix R=RQo and Qo, an LSTM projected layer can perform the multiplication RQoQoht1 and store only 5*NumHiddenUnits*OutputProjectorSize learnable parameters.

    Tip

    To ensure that RQoQoht1 requires fewer learnable parameters, set the OutputProjectorSize property to a value less than (4/5)*NumHiddenUnits.

    Data Types: single | double | int8 | int16 | int32 | int64 | uint8 | uint16 | uint32 | uint64

    This property is read-only.

    Input projector size, specified as a positive integer.

    The LSTM layer operation uses four matrix multiplications of the form Wxt, where W denotes the recurrent weights and xt denotes the layer input at time step t.

    The LSTM projected layer operation instead uses multiplications of the from WQiQixt, where Qi is an InputSize-by-InputProjectorSize matrix known as the input projector. The layer uses the same projector Qi for each of the four multiplications.

    To perform the four multiplications of the form Wxt, an LSTM layer stores four weight matrices W, which necessitates storing 4*NumHiddenUnits*InputSize learnable parameters. By instead storing the 4*NumHiddenUnits-by-InputProjectorSize matrix W=WQi and Qi, an LSTM projected layer can perform the multiplication WQiQixt and store only (4*NumHiddenUnits+InputSize)*InputProjectorSize learnable parameters.

    Tip

    To ensure that WQiQixt requires fewer learnable parameters, set the InputProjectorSize property to a value less than (4*numHiddenUnits*inputSize)/(4*numHiddenUnits+inputSize).

    Data Types: single | double | int8 | int16 | int32 | int64 | uint8 | uint16 | uint32 | uint64

    This property is read-only.

    Output mode, specified as one of these values:

    • 'sequence' — Output the complete sequence.

    • 'last' — Output the last time step of the sequence.

    This property is read-only.

    Flag for state inputs to the layer, specified as 0 (false) or 1 (true).

    If the HasStateInputs property is 0 (false), then the layer has one input with the name 'in', which corresponds to the input data. In this case, the layer uses the HiddenState and CellState properties for the layer operation.

    If the HasStateInputs property is 1 (true), then the layer has three inputs with the names 'in', 'hidden', and 'cell', which correspond to the input data, hidden state, and cell state, respectively. In this case, the layer uses the values passed to these inputs for the layer operation. If HasStateInputs is 1 (true), then the HiddenState and CellState properties must be empty.

    This property is read-only.

    Flag for state outputs from the layer, specified as 0 (false) or 1 (true).

    If the HasStateOutputs property is 0 (false), then the layer has one output with the name 'out', which corresponds to the output data.

    If the HasStateOutputs property is 1 (true), then the layer has three outputs with the names 'out', 'hidden', and 'cell', which correspond to the output data, hidden state, and cell state, respectively. In this case, the layer also outputs the state values that it computes.

    This property is read-only.

    Input size, specified as a positive integer or 'auto'. If InputSize is 'auto', then the software automatically assigns the input size at training time.

    Data Types: double | char

    Activations

    This property is read-only.

    Activation function to update the cell and hidden state, specified as one of these values:

    • 'tanh' — Use the hyperbolic tangent function (tanh).

    • 'softsign' — Use the softsign function softsign(x)=x1+|x|.

    The layer uses this option as the function σc in the calculations to update the cell and hidden state. For more information on how an LSTM layer uses activation functions, see Long Short-Term Memory Layer.

    This property is read-only.

    Activation function to apply to the gates, specified as one of these values:

    • 'sigmoid' — Use the sigmoid function σ(x)=(1+ex)1.

    • 'hard-sigmoid' — Use the hard sigmoid function

      σ(x)={00.2x+0.51if x<2.5if2.5x2.5if x>2.5.

    The layer uses this option as the function σg in the calculations for the layer gates.

    State

    Cell state to use in the layer operation, specified as a NumHiddenUnits-by-1 numeric vector. This value corresponds to the initial cell state when data is passed to the layer.

    After you set this property manually, calls to the resetState function set the cell state to this value.

    If HasStateInputs is 1 (true), then the CellState property must be empty.

    Data Types: single | double

    Hidden state to use in the layer operation, specified as a NumHiddenUnits-by-1 numeric vector. This value corresponds to the initial hidden state when data is passed to the layer.

    After you set this property manually, calls to the resetState function set the hidden state to this value.

    If HasStateInputs is 1 (true), then the HiddenState property must be empty.

    Data Types: single | double

    Parameters and Initialization

    Function to initialize the input weights, specified as one of these values:

    • 'glorot' — Initialize the input weights with the Glorot initializer [1] (also known as the Xavier initializer). The Glorot initializer independently samples from a uniform distribution with zero mean and a variance of 2/(InputProjectorSize + numOut), where numOut = 4*NumHiddenUnits.

    • 'he' — Initialize the input weights with the He initializer [2]. The He initializer samples from a normal distribution with zero mean and a variance of 2/InputProjectorSize.

    • 'orthogonal' — Initialize the input weights with Q, the orthogonal matrix in the QR decomposition of Z = QR for a random matrix Z sampled from a unit normal distribution [3].

    • 'narrow-normal' — Initialize the input weights by independently sampling from a normal distribution with zero mean and a standard deviation of 0.01.

    • 'zeros' — Initialize the input weights with zeros.

    • 'ones' — Initialize the input weights with ones.

    • Function handle — Initialize the input weights with a custom function. If you specify a function handle, then the function must be of the form weights = func(sz), where sz is the size of the input weights.

    The layer only initializes the input weights when the InputWeights property is empty.

    Data Types: char | string | function_handle

    Function to initialize the recurrent weights, specified as one of the following:

    • 'orthogonal' — Initialize the recurrent weights with Q, the orthogonal matrix in the QR decomposition of Z = QR for a random matrix Z sampled from a unit normal distribution [3].

    • 'glorot' — Initialize the recurrent weights with the Glorot initializer [1] (also known as the Xavier initializer). The Glorot initializer independently samples from a uniform distribution with zero mean and a variance of 2/(numIn + numOut), where numIn = OutputProjectorSize and numOut = 4*NumHiddenUnits.

    • 'he' — Initialize the recurrent weights with the He initializer [2]. The He initializer samples from a normal distribution with zero mean and a variance of 2/OutputProjectorSize.

    • 'narrow-normal' — Initialize the recurrent weights by independently sampling from a normal distribution with zero mean and a standard deviation of 0.01.

    • 'zeros' — Initialize the recurrent weights with zeros.

    • 'ones' — Initialize the recurrent weights with ones.

    • Function handle — Initialize the recurrent weights with a custom function. If you specify a function handle, then the function must be of the form weights = func(sz), where sz is the size of the recurrent weights.

    The layer only initializes the recurrent weights when the RecurrentWeights property is empty.

    Data Types: char | string | function_handle

    Function to initialize the input projector, specified as one of the following:

    • 'orthogonal' — Initialize the input projector with Q, the orthogonal matrix in the QR decomposition of Z = QR for a random matrix Z sampled from a unit normal distribution [3].

    • 'glorot' — Initialize the input projector with the Glorot initializer [1] (also known as the Xavier initializer). The Glorot initializer independently samples from a uniform distribution with zero mean and a variance of 2/(InputSize + inputProjectorSize).

    • 'he' — Initialize the input projector with the He initializer [2]. The He initializer samples from a normal distribution with zero mean and a variance of 2/InputSize.

    • 'narrow-normal' — Initialize the input projector by independently sampling from a normal distribution with zero mean and a standard deviation of 0.01.

    • 'zeros' — Initialize the input weights with zeros.

    • 'ones' — Initialize the input weights with ones.

    • Function handle — Initialize the input projector with a custom function. If you specify a function handle, then the function must be of the form weights = func(sz), where sz is the size of the input projector.

    The layer only initializes the input projector when the InputProjector property is empty.

    Data Types: char | string | function_handle

    Function to initialize the output projector, specified as one of the following:

    • 'orthogonal' — Initialize the output projector with Q, the orthogonal matrix in the QR decomposition of Z = QR for a random matrix Z sampled from a unit normal distribution [3].

    • 'glorot' — Initialize the output projector with the Glorot initializer [1] (also known as the Xavier initializer). The Glorot initializer independently samples from a uniform distribution with zero mean and a variance of 2/(NumHiddenUnits + OutputProjectorSize).

    • 'he' — Initialize the output projector with the He initializer [2]. The He initializer samples from a normal distribution with zero mean and a variance of 2/NumHiddenUnits.

    • 'narrow-normal' — Initialize the output projector by independently sampling from a normal distribution with zero mean and a standard deviation of 0.01.

    • 'zeros' — Initialize the output projector with zeros.

    • 'ones' — Initialize the output projector with ones.

    • Function handle — Initialize the output projector with a custom function. If you specify a function handle, then the function must be of the form weights = func(sz), where sz is the size of the output projector.

    The layer only initializes the output projector when the OutputProjector property is empty.

    Data Types: char | string | function_handle

    Function to initialize the bias, specified as one of these values:

    • 'unit-forget-gate' — Initialize the forget gate bias with ones and the remaining biases with zeros.

    • 'narrow-normal' — Initialize the bias by independently sampling from a normal distribution with zero mean and a standard deviation of 0.01.

    • 'ones' — Initialize the bias with ones.

    • Function handle — Initialize the bias with a custom function. If you specify a function handle, then the function must be of the form bias = func(sz), where sz is the size of the bias.

    The layer only initializes the bias when the Bias property is empty.

    Data Types: char | string | function_handle

    Input weights, specified as a matrix.

    The input weight matrix is a concatenation of the four input weight matrices for the components (gates) in the LSTM layer. The layer vertically concatenates the four matrices in this order:

    1. Input gate

    2. Forget gate

    3. Cell candidate

    4. Output gate

    The input weights are learnable parameters. When you train a network using the trainNetwork function, if InputWeights is nonempty, then the software uses the InputWeights property as the initial value. If InputWeights is empty, then the software uses the initializer specified by InputWeightsInitializer.

    At training time, InputWeights is a 4*NumHiddenUnits-by-InputProjectorSize matrix.

    Recurrent weights, specified as a matrix.

    The recurrent weight matrix is a concatenation of the four recurrent weight matrices for the components (gates) in the LSTM layer. The layer vertically concatenates the four matrices in this order:

    1. Input gate

    2. Forget gate

    3. Cell candidate

    4. Output gate

    The recurrent weights are learnable parameters. When you train a network using the trainNetwork function, if RecurrentWeights is nonempty, then the software uses the RecurrentWeights property as the initial value. If RecurrentWeights is empty, then the software uses the initializer specified by RecurrentWeightsInitializer.

    At training time, RecurrentWeights is a 4*NumHiddenUnits-by-OutputProjectorSize matrix.

    Input projector, specified as a matrix.

    The input projector weights are learnable parameters. When you train a network using the trainNetwork function, if InputProjector is nonempty, then the software uses the InputProjector property as the initial value. If InputProjector is empty, then the software uses the initializer specified by InputProjectorInitializer.

    At training time, InputProjector is a InputSize-by-InputProjectorSize matrix.

    Data Types: single | double

    Output projector, specified as a matrix.

    The output projector weights are learnable parameters. When you train a network using the trainNetwork function, if OutputProjector is nonempty, then the software uses the OutputProjector property as the initial value. If OutputProjector is empty, then the software uses the initializer specified by OutputProjectorInitializer.

    At training time, OutputProjector is a NumHiddenUnits-by-OutputProjectorSize matrix.

    Data Types: single | double

    Layer biases, specified as a numeric vector.

    The bias vector is a concatenation of the four bias vectors for the components (gates) in the layer. The layer vertically concatenates the four vectors in this order:

    1. Input gate

    2. Forget gate

    3. Cell candidate

    4. Output gate

    The layer biases are learnable parameters. When you train a network, if Bias is nonempty, then trainNetwork uses the Bias property as the initial value. If Bias is empty, then trainNetwork uses the initializer specified by BiasInitializer.

    At training time, Bias is a 4*NumHiddenUnits-by-1 numeric vector.

    Learning Rate and Regularization

    Learning rate factor for the input weights, specified as a nonnegative scalar or a 1-by-4 numeric vector.

    The software multiplies this factor by the global learning rate to determine the learning rate factor for the input weights of the layer. For example, if InputWeightsLearnRateFactor is 2, then the learning rate factor for the input weights of the layer is twice the current global learning rate. The software determines the global learning rate based on the settings you specify with the trainingOptions function.

    To control the value of the learning rate factor for the four individual matrices in InputWeights, specify a 1-by-4 vector. The entries of InputWeightsLearnRateFactor correspond to the learning rate factor of these components:

    1. Input gate

    2. Forget gate

    3. Cell candidate

    4. Output gate

    To specify the same value for all the matrices, specify a nonnegative scalar.

    Example: 2

    Example: [1 2 1 1]

    Learning rate factor for the recurrent weights, specified as a nonnegative scalar or a 1-by-4 numeric vector.

    The software multiplies this factor by the global learning rate to determine the learning rate for the recurrent weights of the layer. For example, if RecurrentWeightsLearnRateFactor is 2, then the learning rate for the recurrent weights of the layer is twice the current global learning rate. The software determines the global learning rate based on the settings you specify using the trainingOptions function.

    To control the value of the learning rate factor for the four individual matrices in RecurrentWeights, specify a 1-by-4 vector. The entries of RecurrentWeightsLearnRateFactor correspond to the learning rate factor of these components:

    1. Input gate

    2. Forget gate

    3. Cell candidate

    4. Output gate

    To specify the same value for all the matrices, specify a nonnegative scalar.

    Example: 2

    Example: [1 2 1 1]

    Learning rate factor for the input projector, specified as a nonnegative scalar.

    The software multiplies this factor by the global learning rate to determine the learning rate factor for the input projector of the layer. For example, if InputProjectorLearnRateFactor is 2, then the learning rate factor for the input projector of the layer is twice the current global learning rate. The software determines the global learning rate based on the settings you specify using the trainingOptions function.

    Learning rate factor for the output projector, specified as a nonnegative scalar.

    The software multiplies this factor by the global learning rate to determine the learning rate factor for the output projector of the layer. For example, if OutputProjectorLearnRateFactor is 2, then the learning rate factor for the output projector of the layer is twice the current global learning rate. The software determines the global learning rate based on the settings you specify using the trainingOptions function.

    Learning rate factor for the biases, specified as a nonnegative scalar or a 1-by-4 numeric vector.

    The software multiplies this factor by the global learning rate to determine the learning rate for the biases in this layer. For example, if BiasLearnRateFactor is 2, then the learning rate for the biases in the layer is twice the current global learning rate. The software determines the global learning rate based on the settings you specify using the trainingOptions function.

    To control the value of the learning rate factor for the four individual vectors in Bias, specify a 1-by-4 vector. The entries of BiasLearnRateFactor correspond to the learning rate factor of these components:

    1. Input gate

    2. Forget gate

    3. Cell candidate

    4. Output gate

    To specify the same value for all the vectors, specify a nonnegative scalar.

    Example: 2

    Example: [1 2 1 1]

    L2 regularization factor for the input weights, specified as a nonnegative scalar or a 1-by-4 numeric vector.

    The software multiplies this factor by the global L2 regularization factor to determine the L2 regularization factor for the input weights of the layer. For example, if InputWeightsL2Factor is 2, then the L2 regularization factor for the input weights of the layer is twice the current global L2 regularization factor. The software determines the L2 regularization factor based on the settings you specify using the trainingOptions function.

    To control the value of the L2 regularization factor for the four individual matrices in InputWeights, specify a 1-by-4 vector. The entries of InputWeightsL2Factor correspond to the L2 regularization factor of these components:

    1. Input gate

    2. Forget gate

    3. Cell candidate

    4. Output gate

    To specify the same value for all the matrices, specify a nonnegative scalar.

    Example: 2

    Example: [1 2 1 1]

    L2 regularization factor for the recurrent weights, specified as a nonnegative scalar or a 1-by-4 numeric vector.

    The software multiplies this factor by the global L2 regularization factor to determine the L2 regularization factor for the recurrent weights of the layer. For example, if RecurrentWeightsL2Factor is 2, then the L2 regularization factor for the recurrent weights of the layer is twice the current global L2 regularization factor. The software determines the L2 regularization factor based on the settings you specify using the trainingOptions function.

    To control the value of the L2 regularization factor for the four individual matrices in RecurrentWeights, specify a 1-by-4 vector. The entries of RecurrentWeightsL2Factor correspond to the L2 regularization factor of these components:

    1. Input gate

    2. Forget gate

    3. Cell candidate

    4. Output gate

    To specify the same value for all the matrices, specify a nonnegative scalar.

    Example: 2

    Example: [1 2 1 1]

    L2 regularization factor for the input projector, specified as a nonnegative scalar.

    The software multiplies this factor by the global L2 regularization factor to determine the L2 regularization factor for the input projector of the layer. For example, if InputProjectorL2Factor is 2, then the L2 regularization factor for the input projector of the layer is twice the current global L2 regularization factor. The software determines the global L2 regularization factor based on the settings you specify using the trainingOptions function.

    L2 regularization factor for the output projector, specified as a nonnegative scalar.

    The software multiplies this factor by the global L2 regularization factor to determine the L2 regularization factor for the output projector of the layer. For example, if OutputProjectorL2Factor is 2, then the L2 regularization factor for the output projector of the layer is twice the current global L2 regularization factor. The software determines the global L2 regularization factor based on the settings you specify using the trainingOptions function.

    L2 regularization factor for the biases, specified as a nonnegative scalar or a 1-by-4 numeric vector.

    The software multiplies this factor by the global L2 regularization factor to determine the L2 regularization for the biases in this layer. For example, if BiasL2Factor is 2, then the L2 regularization for the biases in this layer is twice the global L2 regularization factor. The software determines the global L2 regularization factor based on the settings you specify using the trainingOptions function.

    To control the value of the L2 regularization factor for the four individual vectors in Bias, specify a 1-by-4 vector. The entries of BiasL2Factor correspond to the L2 regularization factor of these components:

    1. Input gate

    2. Forget gate

    3. Cell candidate

    4. Output gate

    To specify the same value for all the vectors, specify a nonnegative scalar.

    Example: 2

    Example: [1 2 1 1]

    Layer

    Layer name, specified as a character vector or a string scalar. For Layer array input, the trainNetwork, assembleNetwork, layerGraph, and dlnetwork functions automatically assign names to layers with the name ''.

    Data Types: char | string

    This property is read-only.

    Number of inputs to the layer.

    If the HasStateInputs property is 0 (false), then the layer has one input with the name 'in', which corresponds to the input data. In this case, the layer uses the HiddenState and CellState properties for the layer operation.

    If the HasStateInputs property is 1 (true), then the layer has three inputs with the names 'in', 'hidden', and 'cell', which correspond to the input data, hidden state, and cell state, respectively. In this case, the layer uses the values passed to these inputs for the layer operation. If HasStateInputs is 1 (true), then the HiddenState and CellState properties must be empty.

    Data Types: double

    This property is read-only.

    Input names of the layer.

    If the HasStateInputs property is 0 (false), then the layer has one input with the name 'in', which corresponds to the input data. In this case, the layer uses the HiddenState and CellState properties for the layer operation.

    If the HasStateInputs property is 1 (true), then the layer has three inputs with the names 'in', 'hidden', and 'cell', which correspond to the input data, hidden state, and cell state, respectively. In this case, the layer uses the values passed to these inputs for the layer operation. If HasStateInputs is 1 (true), then the HiddenState and CellState properties must be empty.

    This property is read-only.

    Number of outputs to the layer.

    If the HasStateOutputs property is 0 (false), then the layer has one output with the name 'out', which corresponds to the output data.

    If the HasStateOutputs property is 1 (true), then the layer has three outputs with the names 'out', 'hidden', and 'cell', which correspond to the output data, hidden state, and cell state, respectively. In this case, the layer also outputs the state values that it computes.

    Data Types: double

    This property is read-only.

    Output names of the layer.

    If the HasStateOutputs property is 0 (false), then the layer has one output with the name 'out', which corresponds to the output data.

    If the HasStateOutputs property is 1 (true), then the layer has three outputs with the names 'out', 'hidden', and 'cell', which correspond to the output data, hidden state, and cell state, respectively. In this case, the layer also outputs the state values that it computes.

    Examples

    collapse all

    Create an LSTM projected layer with 100 hidden units, an output projector size of 30, an input projector size of 16, and the name "lstmp".

    layer = lstmProjectedLayer(100,30,16,Name="lstmp")
    layer = 
      LSTMProjectedLayer with properties:
    
                           Name: 'lstmp'
                     InputNames: {'in'}
                    OutputNames: {'out'}
                      NumInputs: 1
                     NumOutputs: 1
                 HasStateInputs: 0
                HasStateOutputs: 0
    
       Hyperparameters
                      InputSize: 'auto'
                 NumHiddenUnits: 100
             InputProjectorSize: 16
            OutputProjectorSize: 30
                     OutputMode: 'sequence'
        StateActivationFunction: 'tanh'
         GateActivationFunction: 'sigmoid'
    
       Learnable Parameters
                   InputWeights: []
               RecurrentWeights: []
                           Bias: []
                 InputProjector: []
                OutputProjector: []
    
       State Parameters
                    HiddenState: []
                      CellState: []
    
      Show all properties
    
    

    Include an LSTM projected layer in a layer array.

    inputSize = 12;
    numHiddenUnits = 100;
    outputProjectorSize = max(1,floor(0.75*numHiddenUnits));
    inputProjectorSize = max(1,floor(0.25*inputSize));
    
    layers = [
        sequenceInputLayer(inputSize)
        lstmProjectedLayer(numHiddenUnits,outputProjectorSize,inputProjectorSize)
        fullyConnectedLayer(10)
        softmaxLayer
        classificationLayer];

    Compare the sizes of networks that do and do not contain projected layers.

    Define an LSTM network architecture. Specify the input size as 12, which corresponds to the number of features of the input data. Configure an LSTM layer with 100 hidden units that outputs the last element of the sequence. Finally, specify nine classes by including a fully connected layer of size 9, followed by a softmax layer and a classification layer.

    inputSize = 12;
    numHiddenUnits = 100;
    numClasses = 9;
    
    layers = [ ...
        sequenceInputLayer(inputSize)
        lstmLayer(numHiddenUnits,OutputMode="last")
        fullyConnectedLayer(numClasses)
        softmaxLayer
        classificationLayer]
    layers = 
      5x1 Layer array with layers:
    
         1   ''   Sequence Input          Sequence input with 12 dimensions
         2   ''   LSTM                    LSTM with 100 hidden units
         3   ''   Fully Connected         9 fully connected layer
         4   ''   Softmax                 softmax
         5   ''   Classification Output   crossentropyex
    

    Analyze the network using the analyzeNetwork function. The network has approximately 46,100 learnable parameters.

    analyzeNetwork(layers)

    Create an identical network with an LSTM projected layer in place of the LSTM layer.

    For the LSTM projected layer:

    • Specify the same number of hidden units as the LSTM layer

    • Specify an output projector size of 25% of the number of hidden units.

    • Specify an input projector size of 75% of the input size.

    • Ensure that the output and input projector sizes are positive by taking the maximum of the sizes and 1.

    outputProjectorSize = max(1,floor(0.25*numHiddenUnits));
    inputProjectorSize = max(1,floor(0.75*inputSize));
    
    layersProjected = [ ...
        sequenceInputLayer(inputSize)
        lstmProjectedLayer(numHiddenUnits,outputProjectorSize,inputProjectorSize,OutputMode="last")
        fullyConnectedLayer(numClasses)
        softmaxLayer
        classificationLayer];

    Analyze the network using the analyzeNetwork function. The network has approximately 17,500 learnable parameters, which is a reduction of more than half. The sizes of the learnable parameters of the layers following the projected layer have the same sizes as the network without the LSTM projected layer. Reducing the number of learnable parameters by projecting an LSTM layer rather than reducing the number of hidden units of the LSTM layer maintains the output size of the layer and, in turn, the sizes of the downstream layers, which can result in better prediction accuracy.

    analyzeNetwork(layers)

    Algorithms

    expand all

    References

    [1] Glorot, Xavier, and Yoshua Bengio. "Understanding the Difficulty of Training Deep Feedforward Neural Networks." In Proceedings of the Thirteenth International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Statistics, 249–356. Sardinia, Italy: AISTATS, 2010.

    [2] He, Kaiming, Xiangyu Zhang, Shaoqing Ren, and Jian Sun. "Delving Deep into Rectifiers: Surpassing Human-Level Performance on ImageNet Classification." In Proceedings of the 2015 IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision, 1026–1034. Washington, DC: IEEE Computer Vision Society, 2015.

    [3] Saxe, Andrew M., James L. McClelland, and Surya Ganguli. "Exact solutions to the nonlinear dynamics of learning in deep linear neural networks." arXiv preprint arXiv:1312.6120 (2013).

    Extended Capabilities

    Version History

    Introduced in R2022b